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Table 4 Per-protocol a change scores within yoga and control, and difference between groups with 95% CI and Cohen's d effect size

From: A yoga intervention for type 2 diabetes risk reduction: a pilot randomized controlled trial

  Yoga Control Diff. (Yoga- Ctrl) P diff. Cohen's D
n = 17 n = 15 [95% CI]
Diabetes risk factors      
Fasting BG (mmol/L) 0 −0.5 0.5 [−0.5 to 1.4] 0.32 0.37
Postprandial BG (mmol/L)b −0.4 0.3 −0.7 [−2.8 to 1.4] 0.52 0.32
BMI (kg/m2) −0.2 0.6 −0.9 [−1.8 to 0.1] 0.07 0.69
Weight (kg) −1.0 1.5 −2.5 [−4.8 to −0.3] 0.03 0.83
Waist (cm) −4.9* 0.7 −5.6 [−8.9 to −2.2] <0.01 1.24
Systolic (mmHg) −4.4* −6.5* 2.2 [−3.0 to 7.4] 0.40 0.31
Diastolic (mmHg) −4.6 −3.9* −0.7 [−7.1 to 5.6] 0.82 0.08
Insulin (pmol/L) −14.6 4.1 −18.7 [−54.6 to 17.3] 0.3 0.39
Insulin resistance −0.3 0.1 −0.4 [−1.1 to 0.3] 0.28 0.40
LDL (mmol/L) −0.1 0.2 −0.3 [−0.8 to 0.1] 0.17 0.52
Total cholesterol (mmol/L) −0.9* −0.7 −0.2 [−1.1 to 0.6] 0.58 0.21
Triglycerides (mmol/L) −0.2 −0.3 0.1 [−0.6 to 0.7] 0.83 0.08
Psychological factors c      
Anxiety −1.7* −3.1* 1.4 [−0.7 to 3.6] 0.19 0.50
Depression −2.3* −3.1* 0.8 [−1.9 to 3.4] 0.56 0.22
Positive affect 4.8* 4.7 0.1 [−5.8 to 5.9] 0.99 0.01
Negative affect −4.5* −7.6* 3.0 [−2.4 to 8.5] 0.27 0.42
Perceived stress −6.3* −8.1* 1.8 [−1.7 to 5.3] 0.31 0.38
  1. aSix participants were excluded (yoga n = 3; control n = 3) based on screening FBG <5.6.
  2. bPostprandial BG was calculated based on available data, yoga n = 17 control n = 7.
  3. cOne participant was missing data for psychological factors in the control group.
  4. *p < 0.05.
  5. BG blood glucose; BMI body mass index; LDL low density lipoproteins.