Effects of baicalin on IRI-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and cell apoptosis. (A, B) IRI upregulation of the activity and expression of caspase-3 (17 kD, 12 kD) and its inhibition by baicalin. (C) Baicalin suppression of the renal IRI-induced increase in mitochondrial stress, as shown by assays of expression of caspase-9, Bax, and Bcl-2. (D) TUNEL assay of apoptotic cells. Renal IRI significantly increased the number of apoptotic cells, an increase significantly reduced by treatment with 10 and 100 mg/kg baicalin. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001.