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Table 3 Effects of yoga intervention on OA related symptoms at different time points (N = 36)

From: Yoga for managing knee osteoarthritis in older women: a pilot randomized controlled trial

  Time 1 (T1) 4 weeks Time 2 (T2) 8 weeks Time 3 (T3) 20 weeks p-value1T1 vs. T2 p-value1T1 vs. T3 p-value1T2 vs. T3
WOMAC       
Pain 7.0 (.49) 5.9 (.50) 5.4 (.50) .04 .01 .38
Stiffness 3.8 (.22) 3.6 (.22) 3.4 (.22) .47 .14 .31
Function 24.4 (1.6) 21.4 (1.7) 19.8 (1.7) .06 .008 .31
Total 35.3 (2.1) 30.9 (2.2) 28.5 (2.2) .046 .007 .27
Use pain meds .64 (.13) .76 (.13) .79 (.13) .47 .35 .86
SPPB       
Repeated chair stands 2.5 (.19) 2.8 (.19) 2.8 (.19) .08 .16 .98
Balance 3.7 (.09) 3.9 (.09) 3.7 (.09) .13 .78 .20
Walk 3.4 (.11) 3.6 (.11) 3.4 (.11) .03 .58 .11
Global 9.6 (.29) 10.2 (.29) 9.9 (.29) .007 .34 .10
PSQI       
PSQI total 5.5 (.31) 5.1 (.32) 6.8 (.32) .28 <.001 <.001
Sleep quality .87 (.10) .70 (.10) .73 (.10) .08 .12 .77
Sleep efficiency .54 (.13) .39 (.13) .42 (.13) .20 .33 .81
Sleep disturbance 1.6 (.08) 1.4 (.09) 1.3 (.09) .11 .01 .53
Sleep latency .92 (.11) .88 (.11) .88 (.11) .73 .74 .99
Sleep duration .41 (.08) .23 (.09) .35 (.08) .15 .33 .34
SF-12       
PCS 37.4 (.77) 37.4 (.78) 37.7 (.78) .94 .75 .70
MCS 50.0 (.82) 51.2 (.83) 50.5 (.84) .23 .63 .52
Cantril Ladder       
Current 6.9 (.24) 7.4 (.24) 7.3 (.24) .045 .19 .58
In 5 years 7.3 (.21) 7.3 (.21) 7.2 (.21) .92 .61 .52
  1. Adjusted Means (SE).
  2. 1Repeated measures ANOVA with overall alpha controlled by use of Tukeys LSD for multiple comparisons. WOMAC = Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index; SPPB = Short Physical Performance Battery; PSQI = Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index; SF-12 = Health related Short Form 12; PCS = physical component summary; MCS = mental component summary; Cantril Ladder (quality of life scale).