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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the study participants

From: Yoga for managing knee osteoarthritis in older women: a pilot randomized controlled trial

  Yoga Wait list control  
Variable Mean (95% CI) Mean (95% CI) p-value
Demographics    
  Age, years 71.9 (69.3, 74.6) 71.9 (69.0, 75.0) 1.0
  BMI 29.1 (26.7, 31.7) 28.8 (26.0, 31.7) .80
  Education, years 15.7 (14.1, 16.3) 17.0 (16.1, 18.0) .01
Disease condition (range of scores)    
  WOMAC-pain (0–20) 9.3 (7.4, 11.3) 7.7 (5.6, 9.8) .25
  WOMAC-stiffness (0–8) 5.2 (4.5, 5.9) 4.3 (3.3, 5.3) .16
  WOMAC- physical function (0–68) 35.0 (29.2, 40.9) 27.1 (19.6, 34.6) .09
  WOMAC-total (0– 96) 49.5 (41.6, 57.4) 39.2 (29.7, 48.7) .09
  SPPB Global (0–12) 9.2 (8.1, 10.3) 8.8 (7.6, 10.0) .57
  SPPB-chair (0–4) 2.4 (1.7, 3.1) 1.9 (1.2, 2.7) .36
  SPPB-balance (0–4) 3.6 (3.1, 4.0) 3.7 (3.3, 4.1) .59
  SPPB-walk (0–4) 3.3 (3.0, 3.6) 3.1 (2.7, 3.5) .49
  Comorbidities, no. 2.8 (1.7, 3.9) 1.4 (.8, 2.0) .03
QOS and QOL (range of scores)    
  PSQI Total (0–21) 6.5 (4.4, 8.6) 5.7 (3.9, 7.4) .52
  PSQI-sleep efficiency (0–3) .61 (.1, 1.2) .61 (.15, 1.2) 1.0
  PSQI-sleep disturbance (0–3) 1.7 (1.5, 2.0) 1.5 (1.2, 1.8) .18
  PSQI-sleep duration (0–3) .44 (.1, .8) .33 (.05,.51) .65
  PSQI-sleep latency (0–3) 1.2 (.7, 1.7) .76 (.6, 1.5) .23
  PSQI-sleep quality (0–3) 1.1 (.7, 1.4) .83 (.4, 1.4) .38
  PSQI-Use sleep medications (0–3) .67 (.1, 1.3) .78 (.2, 1.4) .78
  SF-12 PCS (0–100) 39.5 (36.4, 42.6) 37.8 (35.3, 40.3) .37
  SF-12 MCS (0–100) 51.0 (48.2, 53.8) 51.7 (48.8, 54.6) .72
  Cantril Current (0–10) 6.9 (6.0, 7.8) 7.8 (7.1, 8.5) .11
  Cantril 5 years (0–10) 7.3 (6.5, 8.1) 7.8 (7.0, 8.5) .41
  1. n = 18 per group. WOMAC = Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (lower scores = better state); SPPB = Short Physical Performance Battery (higher scores = better state); QOS = quality of sleep; QOL = quality of life; PSQI = Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (lower scores = better state); SF-12 = Health related Short Form 12 (higher scores = better state); PCS = physical component summary; MCS = mental component summary; Cantril current and 5 years (higher scores = better state); P values ≤ .05.