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Table 3 Path analysis*

From: A path analysis of the effects of the doctor-patient encounter and expectancy in an open-label randomized trial of spinal manipulation for the care of low back pain

Dependent variables Direct effects Indirect effects Total effects
   Determinants β 95% CI β 95% CI β 95% CI
Expectations – baseline (R2 = 0.07)
   Low back pain – baseline 0.27 (0.17, 0.37)    0.27 (0.17, 0.37)
Doctor-Patient encounter – 6 weeks (R2 = 0.02)
   Expectations – baseline 0.15 (0.04, 0.26)    0.15 (0.04, 0.26)
   Low back pain- baseline −0.03 (−0.14, 0.08) 0.04 (0.01, 0.07) 0.01 (−0.09, 0.11)
   Dose 0.05 (−0.05, 0.16)    0.05 (−0.05, 0.16)
Low back pain – 6 weeks (R2 = 0.26)
   Expectations – baseline −0.01 (−0.11, 0.08) −0.03 (−0.06, -0.01) −0.05 (−0.14, 0.05)
   Doctor-Patient encounter – 6 weeks −0.22 (−0.31, -0.13)    −0.22 (−0.31, -0.13)
   Low back pain- baseline 0.45 (0.36, 0.54) −0.01 (−0.04, 0.03) 0.44 (0.35, 0.54)
   Dose −0.10 (−0.19, -0.01) −0.01 (−0.04, 0.01) −0.11 (−0.21, −0.02)
Expectations – 6 weeks (R2 = 0.40)
   Expectations – baseline 0.15 (0.06, 0.25) 0.05 (−0.01, 0.12) 0.21 (0.09, 0.32)
   Doctor-Patient encounter – 6 weeks 0.20 (0.11, 0.30) 0.12 (0.07, −0.17) 0.32 (0.21, 0.43)
   Low back pain – 6 weeks −0.54 (−0.63, −0.45)    −0.54 (−0.63, −0.45)
   Low back pain – baseline 0.20 (0.11, 0.30) −0.20 (−0.28, −0.11) 0.01 (−0.09, 0.11)
   Dose 0.15 (0.07, 0.23) 0.07 (0.01, 0.13) 0.22 (0.13, 0.32)
Doctor-Patient encounter – 12 weeks (R2 = 0.37)
   Expectations – baseline    0.11 (0.04, 0.18) 0.11 (0.04, 0.18)
   Doctor-Patient encounter – 6 weeks 0.55 (0.45, 0.65) 0.05 (0.04, 0.18) 0.59 (0.49, 0.69)
   Low back pain – 6 weeks −0.01 (−0.13, 0.10) −0.07 (−0.08, −0.06) −0.09 (−0.20, 0.03)
   Expectations – 6 weeks 0.13 (0.01, 0.25)    0.13 (0.01, 0.25)
   Low back pain- baseline    0.00 (−0.08, 0.08) 0.00 (−0.08, 0.08)
   Dose −0.07 (−0.15, 0.02) 0.06 (0.00, 0.13) −0.01 (−0.11, 0.09)
Low back pain – 12 weeks (R2 = 0.54)
   Expectations – baseline    −0.05 (−0.12, 0.02) −0.05 (−0.12, 0.02
   Doctor-Patient Encounter – 6 weeks 0.06 (−0.03, 0.14) −0.20 (−0.26, −0.14) −0.15 (−0.25, -0.04)
   Low back pain – 6 weeks 0.59 (0.49, 0.69) 0.07 (0.06, 0.08) 0.66 (0.55, 0.76)
   Expectations – 6 weeks −0.12 (−0.21, -0.03) −0.01 (−0.02, −0.00) −0.13 (−0.22, −0.04)
   Doctor-Patient encounter – 12 weeks −0.06 (−0.15, 0.03)    −0.06 (−0.15, 0.03)
   Low back pain- baseline 0.15 (0.06, 0.24) 0.26 (0.19, 0.33) 0.41 (0.31, 0.51)
   Dose −0.03 (−0.10, 0.03 −0.09 (−0.15,−0.02) −0.12 (−0.21, -0.03)
Expectations – 12 weeks (R2 = 0.58)
   Expectations – baseline 0.03 (−0.05, 0.10) 0.15 (0.07, 0.23) 0.18 (0.05, 0.30)
   Doctor-Patient encounter – 6 weeks −0.04 (−0.13, 0.06) 0.30 (0.22, 0.38) 0.26 (0.13, 0.40)
   Low back pain – 6 weeks 0.04 (−0.08, 0.16) −0.49 (−0.56, -0.43) −0.45 (−0.58, −0.32)
   Expectations – 6 weeks 0.63 (0.53, 0.73) 0.04 (0.02, 0.07) 0.68 (0.57, 0.78)
   Doctor-Patient encounter – 12 weeks 0.13 (0.05, 0.21) 0.01 (−0.01, 0.03) 0.14 (0.06, 0.23)
   Low back pain – 12 weeks −0.22 (−0.32, −0.12)    −0.22 (−0.32, −0.12)
   Low back pain- baseline    −0.06 (−0.14, 0.03) −0.06 (−0.14, 0.03)
   Dose    0.16 (0.08, 0.23) 0.16 (0.08, 0.23)
  1. *Standardized coefficients (β) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) are presented for direct effects (path coefficients connecting two variables in Figure 2), indirect effects (computed from all multi-arrow paths connecting two variables), and total effects (sum of direct and indirect effects). Bolded coefficients are statistically significant (p < .05).
  2. R2 shows the proportion of the total variation of each dependent variable that is explained by the model. R2 = 0.36 for the entire model.