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Table 1 Variables in the path analysis models*

From: A path analysis of the effects of the doctor-patient encounter and expectancy in an open-label randomized trial of spinal manipulation for the care of low back pain

Week   n 0 SMT n 6 SMT n 12 SMT n 18 SMT n All
Low back pain
Pain intensity (0 – 100: mean of pain today, worst pain in last 4 weeks, and average pain over last four weeks)
0   95 52.2 (16.3) 99 51.0 (18.2) 97 51.6 (17.5) 100 51.5 (16.8) 391 51.6 (17.2)
6   95 34.5 (18.4) 99 32.3 (15.8) 97 27.1 (14.7) 100 30.2 (19.0) 391 31.0 (17.2)
12   95 37.9 (20.4) 99 32.7 (19.4) 97 29.0 (20.8) 100 31.4 (19.8) 391 32.7 (20.3)
Expectations (6-point Likert scale: 0 extremely doubtful, 3 unsure, and 6 extremely certain)
Confidence at baseline
0 in SMT 95 3.6 (1.2) 99 3.8 (1.1) 97 3.7 (1.2) 100 3.8 (1.1) 391 3.7 (1.2)
0 in LM 95 3.4 (1.2) 99 3.5 (1.2) 97 3.4 (1.2) 100 3.5 (1.2) 391 3.5 (1.2)
0 average 95 3.5 (1.1) 99 3.7 (1.1) 97 3.5 (1.1) 100 3.7 (1.1) 391 3.6 (1.1)
Confidence that care received is working
6   95 3.2 (1.8) 97 3.9 (1.7) 96 4.4 (1.3) 99 4.2 (1.6) 387 3.9 (1.7)
12   86 3.1 (1.8) 90 3.2 (1.7) 88 3.9 (1.4) 92 3.7 (1.6) 356 3.5 (1.7)
Doctor-patient encounter (5-pt Likert scale: 1 strongly disagree to 5 strongly agree)
My doctor seemed comfortable dealing with my back pain
6   95 4.8 (0.5) 97 4.8 (0.7) 96 4.8 (0.5) 99 4.8 (0.4) 387 4.8 (0.5)
12   86 4.5 (0.8) 90 4.6 (0.7) 89 4.5 (0.9) 92 4.5 (0.8) 357 4.5 (0.8)
My doctor seemed enthusiastic about my treatment program
6   95 4.4 (0.9) 97 4.4 (0.8) 96 4.6 (0.8) 99 4.5 (0.7) 387 4.5 (0.8)
12   86 4.0 (1.0) 90 4.2 (0.9) 89 4.1 (1.0) 92 4.1 (1.0) 357 4.1 (1.0)
My doctor spend adequate time listening to my description of the pain
6   95 4.6 (0.8) 97 4.7 (0.7) 96 4.7 (0.7) 99 4.7 (0.6) 387 4.7 (0.7)
12   85 4.6 (0.8) 89 4.4 (0.9) 89 4.5 (1.0) 92 4.5 (0.8) 355 4.5 (0.9)
My doctor seemed confident that the treatment provided would work
6   95 3.4 (0.9) 97 3.6 (0.9) 96 3.7 (0.9) 99 3.7 (0.9) 387 3.6 (0.9)
12   86 3.3 (0.9) 90 3.6 (1.0) 89 3.6 (1.0) 92 3.5 (1.0) 357 3.5 (1.0)
Average patient impression of DC comfort, enthusiasm, confidence in tx success, and adequate time listening
6   95 4.3 (0.5) 97 4.4 (0.5) 96 4.4 (0.5) 99 4.4 (0.4) 387 4.4 (0.5)
12   85 4.1 (0.7) 89 4.2 (0.7) 89 4.2 (0.8) 92 4.1 (0.7) 355 4.2 (0.7)
  1. *The Mean (SD) is presented for each variable in the model for each spinal manipulation dose level (0, 6, 12, and 18 manipulation visits) and the total sample. Data are presented for model variables at baseline (0 weeks), end of care (6 weeks), and subsequent follow-up (12 weeks). Note that the variables in the model for baseline expectations and the doctor-patient encounter are computed averages of preceding variables in the table.
  2. SMT spinal manipulative therapy (spinal manipulation).