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Table 3 Summary data on prevalence of dietary supplement use by military personnel by gender and service

From: A systematic review and meta-analysis on the prevalence of dietary supplement use by military personnel

Dietary supplement Group Studies (reference number) Individual study prevalence, mean (95% CI) Total sample size (n) Summary prevalence estimate (95% CI) (%) Homogeneity of summary prevalence estimate
    (%)    (Q Statistic p-value)
Any Army Men Brasfield [6] 59 (56–63) 4,871 55(53–56) 0.77
Bray et al. [19] 55 (53–57)
Lieberman [26] 55 (50–60)
Lieberman et al. [8] 53 (50–56)
Navy Men Bray et al. [19] 60 (58–62) 3,341   
AF Men Bray et al. [19] 60 (58–62) 3,193   
Marine Men Bray et al. [19] 61 (59–63) 2,767   
Army Women Brasfield [6] 70 (62–78) 1,844 65(60–70) 0.14
Bray et al. [19] 66 (63–69)
Lieberman [26] 70 (56–84)
Lieberman et al. [8] 57 (49–66)
Navy Women Bray et al. [19] 71 (68–74) 1,286   
AF Women Bray et al. [19] 76 (74–78) 1.331   
Marine Women Bray et al. [19] 71 (67–75) 589   
Army Officers in Training, Women Klicka et al. [15] 35 (25–45) 136 36(28–44) 0.72
Arsenault et al. [35] 38 (25–51)
Navy SEALs Schneider et al. [21] 78 (70–87) 1,479 76(65–85) <0.01
Army SF Bovill et al. [12] 90 (85–95)
Army Rangers Deuster et al. [5] 82 (70–94)
Army Rangers Johnson et al. [38] 56 (50–62)
Army Rangers Lieberman [27] 81 (78–84)
Army SF Lieberman [28] 65 (57–73)
Army SF Lieberman et al. [8] 77 (57–97)
Multivitamin Army Men Warber et al. [16] 24 (22–26) 7,418 32(26–39) <0.01
Brasfield [6] 33 (30–36)
Bray et al. [19] 38 (36–40)
Lieberman [26] 30 (26–34)
Lieberman [8] 37 (34–40)
Navy Men Bray et al. [19] 46 (45–48) 3,341   
AF Men Bray et al. [19] 47 (45–49) 3,193   
Marine Men Bray et al. [19] 41 (39–43) 2,767   
Army Women Warber et al. [16] 35 (31–39) 1,610 40(32–48) <0.01
Brasfield [6] 40 (31–49)
Bray et al. [19] 50 (47–53)
Lieberman [26] 28 (14–42)
Lieberman et al. 2010 [8] 41 (33–49)
Navy Women Bray et al. [19] 55 (52–58) 1,286   
AF Women Bray et al. [19] 63 (60–66) 1,331   
Marine Women Bray et al. [19] 53 (49–57) 589   
Navy SEALS Schneider et al. [21] 26 (17–35) 1,147 37(25–52) <0.01
Army SF Bovill et al. [12] 55 (46–64)
Army Rangers Lieberman [27] 23 (20–26)
Army SF Lieberman [28] 32 (25–39)
Lieberman et al. [8] 64 (41–87)
Any vitamin or mineral Army Men Carlson et al. [14] 7 (1–13) 3,720 18(13–26) <0.01
Bray et al. [19] 24 (22–26)
Lieberman et al. [8] 17 (15–20)
Navy Men Bray et al. [19] 27 (25–29) 3,341   
AF Men Bray et al. [19] 25 (24–27) 3,193   
Marine Men Bray et al. [19] 24 (22–26) 2,767   
Army Women Bray et al. [19] 34 (31–37) 952 29(19–41) 0.01
Lieberman et al. [8] 23 (16–30)
Navy Women Bray et al. [19] 36 (33–39) 1,286   
AF Women Bray et al. [19] 40 (37–43) 1,331   
Marine Women Bray et al. [19] 33 (29–37) 589   
Vitamin C Army Men Brasfield [6] 17 (14–20) 1,609 15(12–20) 0.07
Lieberman et al. [26] 13 (10–16)
Army Women Brasfield [6] 15 (9–21) 255 15(10–21) 0.19
Lieberman et al. 2008 [26] 13 (3–23)
Army SF Bovill 2003 [12] 20 (13–27) 271 15(8–26) 0.04
Lieberman [28] 11 (6–16)
Vitamin E Army Men Brasfield [6] 10 (8–12) 514 8(5–13) 0.12
Lieberman [26] 6 (4–8)
Army Women Brasfield [6] 7 (3–12) 164 7(4–12) 0.95
Lieberman [26] 8 (1–16)
Army SF Bovill et al. [12] 12 (6–18) 271 9(6–15) 0.21
Lieberman [28] 7 (3–11)
Calcium Army Men Brasfield [6] 12 (10–14) 1,194 9(4–17) <0.01
Lieberman [26] 6 (4–8)
Army Women Brasfield [6] 14 (8–20) 164 14(10–20) 0.84
Lieberman[26] 15 (4–26)
Iron Army Women Brasfield [6] 12 (6–18) 164 12(8–18) 0.72
Lieberman [26] 10 (1–19)
Protein Army SF Bovill et al. [12] 24 (16–32) 271 20(13–30) 0.08
Lieberman [28] 16 (10–22)
Protein or amino acid Navy SEALs Schneider et al. [21] 18 (15–21) 876 21(11–36) <0.01
Army Rangers Lieberman [27] 12 (5–19)
Army SF Lieberman et al. [8] 47 (23–71)
Creatine Army Men Brasfield [6] 16 (13–18) 1,194 9(3–27) <0.01
Lieberman [26] 5 (3–7)
Navy SEALs Schneider et al. [21] 32 (22–42) 1,169 20(15–25) 0.02
Army SF Bovill et al. [12] 18 (11–25)
Army Rangers Deuster et al.[5] 13 (2–24)
Army Rangers Lieberman [27] 19 (16–22)
Army SF Lieberman [28] 16 (10–22)
Sport drinks Army Men Lieberman [26] 20 (16–24) 1,303 22(19–25) 0.22
Lieberman et al. [8] 23 (20–26)
Army Women Lieberman [26] 28 (14–42) 171 25(19–32) 0.24
Lieberman et al. [8] 24 (17–31)
Navy SEALs Schneider et al. [21] 19 (11–27) 1,147 39(26–55) <0.01
Army SF Bovill et al. [12] 71 (63–79)
Army Rangers Lieberman [27] 41 (38–44)
Army SF Lieberman [28] 36 (28–44)
Army SF Lieberman et al. [8] 32 (10–54)
Sport bars Army Men Warber et al. [16] 8 (7–9) 3,890 7(5–9) 0.03
Lieberman [26] 5 (3–7)
Lieberman et al. [8] 6 (4–8)
Army Women Warber et al. [16] 3 (2–5) 625 3(2–5) 0.65
Lieberman et al. [8] 4 (1–7)
Navy SEALs Schneider et al. [21] 40 (30–50) 1,147 19(6–46) <0.01
Army SF Bovill et al. [12] 52 (43–61)
Army Rangers Lieberman [27] 6 (4–8)
Army SF Lieberman [28] 15 (9–21)
Army SF Lieberman et al. [8] 7 (1–14)
  1. Abbreviations: AF = Air Force; SEAL = Sea, Air, Land (US Navy special operations personnel); SF = Special Forces; CI = confidence interval.