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Table 1 Methods in investigations of DS use by military personnel

From: A systematic review and meta-analysis on the prevalence of dietary supplement use by military personnel

Study Subjects Methods for collecting supplement information Reporting timeframe Response rate (%) - proportion of population participating in investigation Methodological quality score (%)
Carlson et al. [14] 43 ♂ US Army senior non-commissioned officers Questionnaire with items on DS use Current Use 86 75
Klicka et al. [15] 119 ♂ & 86 ♀ cadets at the US Military Academy at West Point NY 7-day dietary record with interview Use over 7 days Not provided 38
Schneider et al. [21] 91 ♂ US Navy SEAL personnel Questionnaire focused on DS use Current Use Not provided 25
Kennedy and Arsenault [33] 2,215 ♂ US Army soldiers entering Special Forces and Ranger training Questionnaire focused on DS use Current use, ≥ 1 time/wk, within last 3 months 99 66
Warber et al. [16] 2,547 ♂ & 494 ♀ US Army soldiers from 32 Army installations world-wide Questionnaires with items on DSs Current use ≥1 time/wk Not provided 59
McGraw et al. [22] 367 ♂ US Army Rangers Questionnaire focused on DS use Use in past 6 months Not provided 41
Sheppard et al. [34] 102 ♂ & 31 ♀ US service members using health clubs Questionnaire focused on creatine and use of other DSs Current use 70 66
Arsenault & Cline [35] 50 ♀ officers in Basic Officer Training 7-day dietary record with interview Use over 7 day period Not provided 42
Stevens and Olsen [36] 439 ♂ & 60 ♀ US marine or AF basic trainees Questionnaire focused on ergogenic DS use Any use in lifetime 91 91
Shanks [17] 224 ♀ active duty US AF women Questionnaire focused on herbal therapy Use in the last 2 years 45 75
Bovill et al. [12] 119 ♂ US Army Special Forces soldiers Questionnaire on nutrition and DS use Current use Not provided 29
Deuster et al. [5] 38 ♂ US Army Rangers at Fort Bragg, North Carolina General health questionnaire with items on DSs Daily Use Not provided 29
Brasfield [6] 750 ♂ & 124 ♀ US Army soldiers from 16 Army posts Questionnaire focused on DS use Current use ≥1 time/wk 58 59
Castillo et al. [18] 1,326 ♂ & 120 ♀ US marines at Camp Pendleton, California Questionnaire (Marine Health Behavior Survey) with items on DSs Use in last year 85 59
Bray et al. [19, 25] 12,119 ♂ & 4,027 ♀ US quad-service members (23% Army; 29% Navy, 21% Marine Corps, 28% AF) Questionnaire with items on DS use Current use ≥1 time/wk in last year 53 88
Smith et al. [37] 1,009 ♂ and 296 ♀ US Navy and Marine Corps personnel (72% Navy, 22% Marine Corps, 6% Navy Reserve/Guard) Questionnaire with items on DS use Use in past year 35 79
Johnson et al. [30, 38] 294 ♂ US Army Rangers Questionnaire focused on DS use Current Use 39 41
Corum [23] 3,789 ♂ & 1,146 ♀ US Army soldiers assigned in Europe Questionnaire focused on DS use Current use Not provided 38
French [24] 376 US service members, active duty, National Guard, or reserves On-line questionnaire focused on DS use Use in past 3 months 60 38
Lieberman [29] 284 ♂ & 31 ♀ US senior military officers at the US Army War College, all services Questionnaire focused on DS use Use ≥ 1 time/wk Not provided 34
Lieberman [27] 768 ♂ US Army Rangers Questionnaire focused on DS use Use ≥1 time/wk Not provided 25
Lieberman [28] 152 ♂ US Army Special Forces soldiers Questionnaire focused on DS use Use ≥1 time/wk Not provided 29
Lieberman [26] 444 ♂ & 40 ♀ US Army soldiers Questionnaire focused on DS use Use ≥1 time/wk 80 46
Thomasos 2008 [31] 10,985 US AF personnel at 27 major installations Questionnaire focused on DS use Current use Not provided 38
Young and Stephens [39] 236 ♂ & 83 ♀ US Marine Corps recruits entering basic training Questionnaire focused on DS use Use at any time in past 65 54
Boos et al. [7] 889 ♂ & 128 ♀ UK Soldiers deployed in Basra, Iraq Questionnaire focused on DS use Current Use 66 66
Lieberman et al. [8, 41, 42] 859 ♂ &131 ♀ US Army soldiers from 11 locations including two overseas; 17 ♂ Special Forces soldiers Questionnaire focused on DS use Use ≥1 time/wk in last 6 months ~80 71
Wells & Webb [20] 197 US AF trainees in Tactical Air Control Party training Questionnaire with items on DSs Current Use Not provided 41
Boos et al. [40] 78 ♂ & 9 ♀ UK soldiers deployed in Afghanistan Questionnaire focused on DS use Current use 58 29
Jacobson et al. [43] 72,718 ♂ & 33,980 ♀ US service members (active & reserve) enrolled in the Millennium Cohort Study Questionnaire including item on DS use Use in last 12 months 68 88
Toblin et al. [44] 988 ♂ US Army soldiers and marines deployed to Afghanistan Questionnaire including item on energy drinks Daily Use 79 71
Kjertakov et al. 2013 [45] 132 ♂ Macedonian Special Operations soldiers Questionnaire focused on DS use Use in last 3 months Not provided 41
Cassler et al. [9] 310 ♂ & 19 ♀ US marines deployed in Afghanistan (Camp Leatherneck) Questionnaire focused on DS use Use in last 30 days Not provided 38
  1. Abbreviations: ♂ = men, ♀ = women; DS(s) = dietary supplement(s); US = United States; UK = United Kingdom; AF = Air Force; SEAL = Sea, Air, Land (US Navy special operations personnel); wk = week; NY = New York.