B-ext, L-ext, their components, and NAC inhibited production of ROS in 661 W cells. The cells were pretreated with B-ext, L-ext, delphinidin, cyanidin, malvidin, trans-resveratrol, and procyanidin B2 for 1 h, and then exposed to 2500 lx of blue LED light for 6 h. B-ext (A), L-ext (B), NAC (C), delphinidin, cyanidin, malvidin (D), trans-resveratrol, and procyanidin B2 (E) inhibited ROS production in cells induced by blue LED light exposure in a concentration-dependent manner. Intracellular ROS levels were determined by measuring the fluorescence of CM-H2DCFDA (excitation, 488 nm; emission, 525 nm) after blue LED light exposure for 1 h. Data are represented as means ± SEM (n = 6). C, control; V, vehicle; B-ext, bilberry extract; L-ext, lingonberry extract; Dp, delphinidin; Cy, cyanidin; Mv, malvidin; Res, trans- resveratrol; PC, procyanidin B2. ##
p < 0.01 vs. control; *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01 vs. the vehicle-treated group (Dunnett’s multiple comparison test or Student’s t-test).