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Table 1 Socio demographic, healthcare utilisation, and self-health management characteristics of respondents

From: The utilisation of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) among ethnic minorities in South Korea

Variables Total number of respondents, N (%) CAM utilization status P-value a
   Non-CAM user n (%) CAM user n (%)  
  292 (100.0) 111 (100.0) 181 (100.0)  
Socio-demographic characteristics
Gender     0.042
  Male 63 (21.6) 46 (15.3) 46 (25.4)  
  Female 229 (78.4) 94 (84.7) 135 (74.6)  
Country of origin     0.695
  China 136 (46.6) 54 (48.6) 82 (45.3)  
  Vietnam 65 (22.3) 26 (23.4) 39 (21.5)  
  Philippines 22 (7.5) 6 (5.4) 16 (8.8)  
  Japan 18 (6.2) 7 (6.3) 11 (6.1)  
  Russia 14 (4.8) 8 (7.2) 6 (3.3)  
  Other 37 (12.7) 10 (9) 27 (14.9)  
Age     0.021
  ≤ 29 115 (39.4) 55 (49.5) 60 (33.1)  
  30-39 108 (37.0) 34 (30.6) 74 (40.9)  
  ≥ 40 69 (23.6) 24 (22.0) 47 (26.0)  
Marital status     0.281
  Not married 79 (27.1) 34 (30.6) 45 (24.9)  
  Married 213 (72.9) 77 (69.4) 136 (75.1)  
Education level     0.842
  ≤ HS graduate 181 (62.0) 68 (61.3) 113 (62.4)  
  ≥ College 111 (38.0) 43 (38.7) 68 (37.6)  
Religionb     0.227
  No 116 (39.7) 49 (44.1) 67 (37.0)  
  Yes 176 (60.3) 62 (55.9) 114 (63.0)  
Employment status     <0.001
  Unemployed 157 (53.8) 74 (66.7) 83 (45.9)  
  Employed 135 (46.2) 37 (33.3) 98 (54.1)  
Monthly incomec     0.728
  ≤ 2 million KRW 215 (73.6) 83 (74.8) 132 (72.9)  
  > 2 million KRW 77 (26.4) 28 (25.2) 49 (27.1)  
Korean language ability     0.148
  Worse than average 182 (62.3) 75 (67.6) 107 (59.1)  
  Better than average 110 (37.7) 36 (32.4) 74 (40.9)  
Length of stay in Korea     <0.001
  ≤ 4 years 149 (51.0) 75 (67.6) 74 (40.9)  
  5-9 years 92 (31.5) 21 (18.9) 71 (39.2)  
  ≥ 10 years 51 (17.5) 15 (13.5) 36 (19.9)  
Healthcare utilization and self health management characteristics
Have received healthcare service last year    0.011
  No 52 (17.8) 28 (25.2) 24 (13.3)  
  Yes 240 (82.2) 83 (74.8) 157 (86.7)  
Health insurance     0.571
  Uninsured 89 (30.5) 36 (32.4) 53 (29.3)  
  Insured 203 (69.5) 75 (67.6) 128 (70.7)  
Have regularly scheduled meals     0.824
  No 187 (64.0) 68 (61.3) 119 (65.7)  
  Yes 105 (36.0) 43 (38.7) 62 (34.3)  
Exercise regularly     0.315
  No 236 (80.8) 93 (83.8) 143 (79)  
  Yes 56 (19.2) 18 (16.2) 38 (21)  
Have interest in health maintenance    0.222
  No 163 (55.8) 67 (60.4) 96 (53.0)  
  Yes 129 (44.2) 44 (39.6) 85 (47.0)  
Perceived health status     0.974
  Worse (than others) 195 (66.8) 74 (66.7) 121 (66.9)  
  Better (than others) 97 (33.2) 37 (33.3) 60 (33.1)  
  1. aUnivariate logistic regression models were used to screen for possible predictors of CAM utilisation status.
  2. bParticipants were asked to select from pre-determined categories of religions or ‘none’ for no religion.
  3. cUsing exchange rates at the time of the study, two million Korean Won is equivalent to 1696 US dollars or 1370 Euros.