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Table 2 Effects of simulator sickness (SS) and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) on various physiological parameters

From: Simultaneous transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation mitigates simulator sickness symptoms in healthy adults: a crossover study

  Phase 1 Phase 2 Early post-test Late post-test
(Pre-20 to pre-10 min) (Pre-10 min to 0 min) (30 min to SS15 min) (SS15min to SS30 min)
SS SS + TENS SS SS + TENS SS SS + TENS SS SS + TENS
HR (bpm) 73.09 ± 13.27 76.65 ± 8.95 74.22 ± 14.36 74.22 ± 9.15 77.15 ± 18.10 75.41 ± 9.64* 78.59 ± 13.85# 76.23 ± 7.10*
LF/(LF + HF) 0.52 ± 0.17 0.60 ± 0.06 0.51 ± 0.18 0.57 ± 0.08 0.70 ± 0.11# 0.55 ± 0.11* 0.75 ± 0.06# 0.58 ± 0.10*
HF/(LF + HF) 0.48 ± 0.17 0.40 ± 0.06 0.49 ± 0.18 0.43 ± 0.08 0.30 ± 0.11# 0.45 ± 0.11* 0.25 ± 0.06# 0.42 ± 0.10*
LF/HF 1.43 ± 0.87 1.66 ± 0.44 1.37 ± 0.75 1.51 ± 0.50 3.00 ± 1.46# 1.42 ± 0.57* 3.66 ± 1.74# 1.68 ± 0.78*
  1. SS: simulation sickness; HR: heart rate; LF: low frequency, HF: high frequency; % change compared with pre-20 min presented in parentheses.
  2. *p < 0.05 relative to SS; # < 0.05 relative to baseline (Pre-20 min).