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Table 3 Summary of primary and secondary outcome measures

From: Effect of an office worksite-based yoga program on heart rate variability: outcomes of a randomized controlled trial

  Yoga group Control group Effect size p*
Outcome measure Week 0 Week 11 Week 0 Week 11
HRV and Heart Rate
 Log HF Power 2.75 ± 0.63 2.51 ± 0.83 2.57 ± 0.58 2.53 ± 0.55 0.02 0.48
 Log SDNN 1.81 ± 0.21 1.76 ± 0.28 1.69 ± 0.19 1.68 ± 0.19 0.01 0.70
 Log RMSSD 1.73 ± 0.32 1.59 ± 0.42 1.58 ± 0.29 1.62 ± 0.27 0.05 0.22
 pNN50 27.7 ± 27.5 20.7 ± 25.3 16.0 ± 16.6 19.4 ± 18.4 0.12 0.04
 Log LF Power 2.89 ± 0.57 2.86 ± 0.73 2.61 ± 0.45 2.55 ± 0.49 0.01 0.53
 Log Total Power 3.34 ± 0.50 3.26 ± 0.64 3.18 ± 0.42 3.09 ± 0.42 0.01 0.66
 Log LF:HF 0.13 ± 0.33 0.35 ± 0.43 0.04 ± 0.40 0.04 ± 0.38 0.12 0.04
 Heart Rate (beats/min) 62 ± 6 65 ± 9 68 ± 10 67 ± 9 0.07 0.13
Musculoskeletal Fitness
 Sit and reach (cm) 27.8 ± 10.0 31.0 ± 8.7 27.3 ± 11.0 26.4 ± 10.4 0.35 <0.001
 Push-up (reps) 17 ± 10 21 ± 11 17 ± 13 20 ± 13 0.04 0.27
 Side bridge (s) 60.1 ± 35.3 60.8 ± 38.7 47.0 ± 27.2 42.9 ± 24.7 0.01 0.59
Psychological Measures
 Trait Anxiety (STAI) 36.1 ± 10.4 33.1 ± 9.7 38.6 ± 7.8 35.3 ± 7.2 0 0.96
 State Anxiety (STAI) 32.7 ± 6.2 27.9 ± 7.6 36.1 ± 9.7 32.1 ± 7.8 0.04 0.25
 General Job Satisfaction (JIG) 46.9 ± 7.6 47.1 ± 7.7 46.3 ± 6.0 46.7 ± 6.2 0.01 0.52
 PCS (SF36) 49.4 ± 2.9 47.5 ± 2.7 47.4 ± 5.1 46.9 ± 4.8 0.04 0.27
 MCS (SF36) 45.3 ± 8.9 47.5 ± 10.6 45.2 ± 923 48.5 ± 7.7 0.01 0.66
  1. Data presented as mean + standard deviation.
  2. *Estimates based upon the final model including the baseline assessment value, age and body mass index as covariates.
  3. SDNN, standard deviation of the normal-normal interval; RMSSD, root-mean-square of the successive normal sinus RR interval difference; pNN50, percentage of absolute differences between successive normal RR intervals that exceed 50 ms; HF, high frequency power; LF, low frequency power; LF:HF, ratio of low frequency to high frequency power; STAI, State-trait anxiety inventory; JIG, Job in general scale; SF36, medical outcomes trust short-form 36 health status questionnaire; PCS, physical component scale; MCS, mental component scale.