The activation of AMPK by RGE. A) AMPK activation. Immunoblot analyses were performed on lysates of HepG2 cells that had been treated with RGE for the indicated time period. B) Relative protein level of AMPKα phosphorylation (p-AMPKα). Results were confirmed by three experiments. Data represent the mean ± S.E.M. (treatment mean significantly different from vehicle-treated control, *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01). C) AMPK activation by RGE in H4IIE and AML12 cell lines.