Abrogation of mitochondrial dysfunction by RGE. A) Mitochondrial membrane permeability (MMP). HepG2 cells were treated with 1 mg/ml RGE for 1 h, followed by incubation with AA (12 h) and iron (1 h). The cells were harvested after rhodamine 123 staining. Treatment of cells with AA + iron increased the subpopulation of M1 fraction (low rhodamine 123 fluorescence), as indicated by the left shift of the population. B) Relative MMP. Data represent the mean ± S.E.M. of three separate experiments. The statistical significance of differences between treatments and either the vehicle-treated control (**
p < 0.01) or cells treated with AA + iron (#
p < 0.05, ##
p < 0.01) was determined.