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Table 1 The 20 most frequently used herbal medicines in pregnancy, overall and according to region

From: Herbal medicine use in pregnancy: results of a multinational study

  Overall use REGION  
Top 20 herbal medicines Total number of herb used (n) % ± SE Western Europe n = 888 % ± SE Northern Europe n = 335 % ± SE Eastern Europe n = 1,213 % ± SE North America n = 142 % ± SE South America n = 62 % ± SE Australia n = 95 % ± SE Total number of women n = 2,735 % ± SE
Ginger 643 12.8 ± 0.5 28.5 ± 1.5 39.1 ± 2.7 12.2 ± 0.9 40.8 ± 4.1 4.8 ± 2.7 52.6 ± 5.1 23.5 ± 0.8
Cranberry 622 12.4 ± 0.5 10.6 ± 1.0 22.4 ± 2.3 35.7 ± 1.4 6.3 ± 2.0 * 10.5 ± 3.1 22.7 ± 0.8
Valerian 391 7.8 ± 0.5 6.9 ± 0.9 * 26.4 ± 1.3 2.8 ± 1.4 * - 14.3 ± 0.7
Raspberry 301 6.0 ± 0.4 14.8 ± 1.2 11.0 ± 1.7 7.4 ± 0.8 17.6 ± 3.2 - 18.9 ± 4.0 11.0 ± 0.6
Chamomile 194 3.9 ± 0.3 4.2 ± 0.7 1.2 ± 0.6 10.5 ± 0.9 5.6 ± 1.9 27.4 ± 5.7 * 7.1 ± 0.5
Peppermint 188 3.7 ± 0.3 6.5 ± 0.8 2.1 ± 0.8 8.1 ± 0.9 8.5 ± 2.3 12.9 ± 4.3 5.3 ± 2.3 6.9 ± 0.5
Dog rose 149 3.0 ± 0.2 * * 11.8 ± 0.9 * * - 5.4 ± 0.4
Cowberry 142 2.8 ± 0.2 * * 11.5 ± 0.9 - - - 5.2 ± 0.4
Psyllium 132 2.6 ± 0.2 6.1 ± 0.8 1.8 ± 0.7 1.4 ± 0.3 19.7 ± 3.3 12.9 ± 4.3 20.0 ± 4.1 4.8 ± 0.4
Rosemary 98 2.0 ± 0.2 * - 7.7 ± 0.8 - - * 3.6 ± 0.4
Centaury 94 1.9 ± 0.2 - - 7.7 ± 0.8 - - - 3.4 ± 0.3
Lovage 94 1.9 ± 0.2 - - 7.7 ± 0.8 - - - 3.4 ± 0.3
Lemon 93 1.9 ± 0.2 3.8 ± 0.6 * 4.0 ± 0.6 * 6.5 ± 3.1 3.2 ± 1.8 3.4 ± 0.3
Echinacea 92 1.8 ± 0.2 5.0 ± 0.7 4.8 ±1.2 1.5 ± 0.3 6.3 ± 2.0 * 3.2 ± 1.8 3.4 ± 0.3
Lemon Balm 84 1.7 ± 0.2 2.4 ± 0.5 * 4.9 ± 0.6 * * - 3.1 ± 0.3
Motherwort 79 1.6 ± 0.2 - - 6.5 ± 0.7 - - - 2.9 ± 0.3
Garlic 78 1.6 ± 0.2 * * 5.6 ± 0.7 2.8 ± 1.4 - * 2.9 ± 0.3
Fiber crops 66 1.3 ± 0.2 3.6 ± 0.6 * 0.5 ± 0.2 9.9 ± 2.5 * 8.4 ± 2.8 2.4 ± 0.3
Uva ursi 65 1.3 ± 0.2 0.1 ± 0.1 - 5.3 ± 0.6 - - - 2.4 ± 0.3
Total 3,605 72.0 ± 0.6        
Summary of herbal medicine used
Total no. of herbs used    1,261 379 2,904 233 110 136 5,023
No. of multiherb products    98 10 368 8 0 1 485
Average no. of herbs used    1.4 0.6 1.1 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.6
No. of different herbs    90 54 83 42 38 24 134
  1. SE: Standard error. Standard errors were calculated for all percentages; however, where the SE > 50% the point estimate is not reported and an “*” is used.