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Table 1 Medicinal plants used in the present study

From: Cytotoxicity, mode of action and antibacterial activities of selected Saudi Arabian medicinal plants

Plant species/Family (Voucher specimen) Traditional use Sample used* (yield in %) Index
Teucrium oliverianum/ Lamiaceae (15930) Antinociceptive effect[2], antioxidant activity[3] and antimicrobial activities[4] 20.0 SY-175
Echium arabicum/ Boraginaceae (15931) Antiplasmodial and antitrypanosomal activity[5] 14.5 SY-176
Haplophyllum tuberculatum/ Rutaceae (15932) Headaches and arthritis, to remove warts and freckles from the skin and also to treat skin discoloration, infections and parasitic diseases[6], it is used to treat malaria, rheumatoid arthritis and gynecological disorders[7] 19.6 SY-177
Senna italica/Caealpiniaceae (15933) Diarrhea, stomachache, female infertility, tuberculosis, asthma[8] 14.9 SY-178
Pulicaria crispa/Asteraceae (15934) Treat inflammation and an insect repellent[9] and is also used as an herbal tea 6.7 SY-179
Rhantarium epapposum/ Asteraceae (15935) Skin infections and gastrointestinal disturbances and as an insecticide[10] 3.1 SY-180
Rumex vasicanus/ Polygonaceae (15936) Treatment of pain, inflammation, bleeding, tinea, tumor, and constipation[11, 12], cough, headache, and fever[13] 13 SY-181
Ducrosia anethifolia/Aplaceae (15937) Analgesic and pain reliever for headache, ackache, colic, and colds[14] 26 SY-182
Heliotropium ramosissimum/ Boraginaceae (15938) Treatment of gout, rheumatism, and as anti-inflammatory and healing agents[15] 2.58 SY-183
Picris cyanocarpa/ Asteraceae (15939) Treatment of indigestion, against intestinal nematodes and other parasites[16] 19.5 SY-184
Anthemis deserti/ Asteraceae (15940) Herbal medicines, insecticides, and dyes, food additives, as well as an important source in aromatic and cosmetic industries[17] 10.8 SY-185
Cleome ambliocarpa/ Cleomaceae (15945) Stomachics, rubefacients and in the treatment of scabies, rheumatic, fever, inflammation and a hypoglycemic agent,[18] 14.9 SY-186
Zilla spinosa/ Brassicaceae (15946) Antioxidant, antifungal, hepatoprotective and antiviral activities[19] 13.5 SY-187
Ziziphus nummularia/ Rhamnaceae (15947) Antibacterial, analgesic activities and anthelmintics[20] 11.6 SY-188
Neurada procumbens/ Neuradaceae (15949) Diarrhea and dysentery; as well, it has been used as a tonic to ‘increase heart and respiration functions 8.6 SY-189
Trigonella hamosa/ Papilionaceae (15951) A condiment and seasoning in food preparations and hypoglycemic 22 SY-190
Achillia fragrantissima/ Asteraceae (15952) Respiratory diseases and gastrointestinal disturbances[21] 6.2 SY-191
Convolvulus prostates/ Convolvulaceae (15953) Brain related disease, improve memory, skin disease[22] 15.3 SY-192
Cltrullus colocynthis/ Cucurbitaceae (15954) Treat constipation, diabetes, edema, fever, jaundice, bacterial infections as well as cancer[23] 14.2 SY-193
Emex spinosa/ Polygonaceae (15955) Purgative, diuretic, a remedy for stomach disorders, dyspepsia and colic[24] 16.8 SY-194
Rhazya strict/ Apocynaceae (15957) Diabetes mellitus, fever, sore throat, inflammatory conditions and helminthiasis[25] 22 SY-195
Scrophularia hypericifolia/ Scrophulariaceae (15958) Antipyretic, febrifuge and anti-bacterial, as a remedy for evening fever, mouth dryness, constipation, prurigo, furunculosis, sore throat, ulcerous stomatitis, tonsillitis and in the treatment of cancer[26, 27] 12.12 SY-196
Caylusea hexagyna/ Resedaceae (15959) Anticancer (melanoma cell lines)[28] 13.04 SY-197
Artemisia monosperma/ Asteraceae (15960) Antispasmodic, anthelmintic and anti-hypertensive[29] 16.4 SY-198
Ononis serrata/ Fabaceae (15925) Antibiotic, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, antifungal and antiseptic activities. Treatment of skin and rheumatic diseases as well as gout[30] 5.5 SY160
Achillea beiberstenii/ Asteraceae (15470) Spasmolytic, choleretic, treatment of wounds and anti-inflammatory activities, make it as an important medicinal plant[31] 10.4 Ach-b
  1. *80% methanol extracts from the aerial part.