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Table 2 The composition of phenolic compounds in betel quid (with and without calcium hydroxide) and that of its ingredients

From: Antioxidant and cytoprotective activities of Piper betle, Areca catechu, Uncaria gambir and betel quid with and without calcium hydroxide

t R(min) MW (calculated mass) M-H (observed mass) Proposed compound Area (%)
Betel leaf    
1.454 138.03 137.07 p-hydroxybenzoic acid* 44.9
2.102 164.16 163.09 Eugenol 2.95
2.427 338.19 337.19 4-p-coumaroylquinic acid 1.6
Areca nut    
1.128 866 865.20 Procyanidin trimer 1.56
1.290 578 577.12 Procyanidin dimers (B1) 25.34
1.614 290.26 289.19 Catechin* 41.44
2.585 866 865.37 Procyanidin trimers 2.93
2.909 578 577.24 Procyanidin dimers (B2) 0.6
3.718 624 623.16 isorhamnetin 3-O-rutinoside 3.53
Gambir     
0.805 192.17 191.05 Quinic acid* 21.77
1.293 290.26 289.17 (+)-catechin 6.02
1.619 578.52 577.19 Procyanidin dimer (B1) 17.96
2.268 562 561.12 (epi)afzelechin-(epi)catechin 7.06
2.431 580.1 579.10 Proanythocyanidin dimer 12.16
2.593 578.52 577.15 Proanthocyanidin dimer 0.8
2.917 290.26 289.12 (-)-epicatechin 1.61
3.726 290.26 289.12 Catechin Isomer 5.34
5.505 578.52 577.11 Proanthocyanidin dimer 3.05
5.342 580.1 579.10 Proanthocyanidin dimer 3.07
6.28 610 609.19 Quercetine diglycoside 14.79
6.649 450.39 451.22 Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside 4.3
7.631 302.24 301.11 Quercetin 2.02
8.116 286.06 285.08 Kaempferol 0.05
Betel quid    
0.969 192.17 191.07 Quinic acid* 10.76
1.295 164 163.08 p-coumaric acid 4.55
2.426 164 163.05 Eugenol 3.89
2.587 134.18 133.02 Chavicol 1.26
3.071 138.03 137.03 p-hydroxybenzoic acid 1.52
6.460 150.174 149.08 hydroxychavicol 0.62
8.078 330 329.24 3,30-di-O-methyl ellagic acid 0.16
Betel quid with calcium hydroxide  
1.453 164.2 163.05 Eugenol 1.37
2.425 164.2 163.04 p-coumaric acid 1.61
7.098 150.174 149.07 Hydroxychavicol* 2.1
  1. *Major compound in the aqueous extracts.