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Table 4 Pregnancy outcome according to cranberry use, UTI and use of antibiotics, n = 68,522*

From: Pregnancy outcome after use of cranberry in pregnancy – the Norwegian mother and child cohort study

   No exposure to cranberry and UTI (n = 60,846) Exposed to cranberry, UTI and antibiotics against UTI during pregnancy (n = 254) Exposed to cranberry, UTI and no antibiotics against UTI during pregnancy (n = 300)
Outcome Total (%) No. (%) Crude OR Adjusted OR No. (%) Crude OR (95% CI) Adjusted OR (95% CI) No. (%) Crude OR (95% CI) Adjusted OR (95% CI)
Stillbirth/neonatal death a 323 (0.5) 293 (0.5) Ref. Ref. 1 (0.4) 0.8 (0.1–5.8) 0.8 (0.1–6.2)g 3 (1.0) 2.1 (0.7–6.5) 2.2 (0.7–6.6)g
Preterm birth b 3,535 (5.2) 3,124 (5.2) Ref. Ref. 15 (6.0) 1.2 (0.7–2.0) 1.1 (0.6–1.9)h 19 (6.4) 1.2 (0.8–2.0) 1.2 (0.8–2.0)h
Low birth weight c 2,182 (3.2) 1,934 (3.2) Ref. Ref. 3 (1.2) 0.4 (0.1–1.1) 0.5 (0.2–1.5)g 7 (2.4) 0.7 (0.3–1.5) 0.5 (0.2–1.0)g
Small for gestational age d 4,281 (6.2) 3,784 (6.2) Ref. Ref. 11 (4.3) 0.7 (0.4–1.3) 0.6 (0.3–1.1)i 30 (10.0) 1.7 (1.1–2.4) 1.4 (0.9–2.1)i
Low Apgar score e 898 (1.3) 792 (1.3) Ref. Ref. 5 (2.0) 1.5 (0.6–3.7) 1.5 (0.6–3.8)g 7 (2.3) 1.8 (0.9–3.8) 1.5 (0.7–3.4)g
Neonatal infections f 870 (1.3) 770 (1.3) Ref. Ref. 3 (1.2) 0.9 (0.3–2.9) 0.8 (0.3–2.7)j 7 (2.3) 1.9 (0.9–4.0) 1.8 (0.9–3.9)j
  1. Abbreviations: CI confidence interval, OR odds ratio, Ref. reference category.
  2. *Odds ratios (ORs) resulting from Generalized estimating equations analyses are presented in the table. Significant findings are in bold.
  3. The outcomes were not mutually exclusive.
  4. aIncludes infants who were stillborn with a gestational age of ≥22 weeks or birth weight of ≥425 g, or who died during the first 28 days of life.
  5. bIncludes infants born at a gestational age of <37 weeks, which WHO defines as preterm.
  6. cIncludes infants with a birth weight of <2500 g, which WHO defines as low birth weight.
  7. dIncludes infants with a birth weight below the 10th percentile at the attained gestational age.
  8. eIncludes infants who had an Apgar score of < 7 at 5 min after birth.
  9. fIncludes infants who were diagnosed with ICD-10 P35-39.
  10. gAdjusted for maternal age, parity, pre-pregnancy BMI, folic acid use, smoking, education, previous miscarriages/stillbirths, length of gestation, maternal mother tongue and year of delivery.
  11. hAdjusted for maternal age, parity, pre-pregnancy BMI, folic acid use, smoking, education, previous miscarriages/stillbirths, maternal mother tongue, year of delivery and vaginal infections.
  12. iAdjusted for maternal age, parity, pre-pregnancy BMI, folic acid use, smoking, education, previous miscarriages/stillbirths, maternal mother tongue and year of delivery.
  13. jAdjusted for maternal age, parity, pre-pregnancy BMI, folic acid use, smoking, education, previous miscarriages/stillbirths, length of gestation, maternal mother tongue, year of delivery, vaginal infections.