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Table 3 Pregnancy outcome according to cranberry exposure, n = 68,522*

From: Pregnancy outcome after use of cranberry in pregnancy – the Norwegian mother and child cohort study

   No exposure to cranberry (n = 67,603) Exposed to cranberry during pregnancy (n = 919)
Outcome Total (%) No. (%) Crude OR Adjusted OR No. (%) Crude OR (95% CI) Adjusted OR (95% CI)
Stillbirth/neonatal death a 323 (0.5) 319 (0.5) Ref. Ref. 4 (0.4) 0.9 (0.3–2.5) 1.1 (0.4–2.8)g
Preterm birth b 3,535 (5.2) 3,497 (5.2) Ref. Ref. 38 (4.1) 1.0 (0.8–1.4) 1.0 (0.8–1.4)h
Low birth weight c 2,182 (3.2) 2,160 (3.2) Ref. Ref. 22 (2.4) 0.7 (0.5–1.1) 0.7 (0.4–1.0)g
Small for gestational age d 4,281 (6.2) 4,226 (6.3) Ref. Ref. 55 (6.0) 1.0 (0.7–1.3) 0.8 (0.6–1.1)i
Low Apgar score e 898 (1.3) 887 (1.3) Ref. Ref. 11 (1.2) 1.2 (0.7–2.0) 1.0 (0.6–1.8)g
Neonatal infections f 870 (1.3) 856 (1.3) Ref. Ref. 14 (1.5) 1.2 (0.7–2.1) 1.1 (0.6–1.9)j
  1. Abbreviations: CI confidence interval, OR odds ratio, Ref. reference category.
  2. *Odds ratios (ORs) resulting from Generalized estimating equations analyses are presented in the table.
  3. The outcomes were not mutually exclusive.
  4. aIncludes infants who were stillborn with a gestational age of ≥22 weeks or birth weight of ≥425 g, or who died during the first 28 days of life.
  5. bIncludes infants born at a gestational age of <37 weeks, which WHO defines as preterm.
  6. cIncludes infants with a birth weight of <2500 g, which WHO defines as low birth weight.
  7. dIncludes infants with a birth weight below the 10th percentile at the attained gestational age.
  8. eIncludes infants who had an Apgar score of < 7 at 5 min after birth.
  9. fIncludes infants who were diagnosed with ICD-10 P35-39.
  10. gAdjusted for maternal age, parity, pre-pregnancy BMI, folic acid use, smoking, UTI, education, previous miscarriages/stillbirths, length of gestation, maternal mother tongue and year of delivery.
  11. hAdjusted for maternal age, parity, pre-pregnancy BMI, folic acid use, smoking, UTI, education, previous miscarriages/stillbirths, maternal mother tongue, year of delivery and vaginal catarrh.
  12. iAdjusted for maternal age, parity, pre-pregnancy BMI, folic acid use, smoking, UTI, education, previous miscarriages/stillbirths, maternal mother tongue and year of delivery.
  13. jAdjusted for maternal age, parity, pre-pregnancy BMI, folic acid use, smoking, UTI, education, previous miscarriages/stillbirths, length of gestation, maternal mother tongue, year of delivery and vaginal infections.