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Table 2 Association between malformations and exposure to cranberry during early pregnancy, n = 68,522*

From: Pregnancy outcome after use of cranberry in pregnancy – the Norwegian mother and child cohort study

   No exposure to cranberry (n = 67,603) Exposed to cranberry during early pregnancya(n = 566)
Outcome Total (%) No. (%) Crude OR Adjusted OR No. (%) Crude OR (95% CI) Adjusted OR (95% CI)
Malformations, all 3,201 (4.7) 3,145 (4.7) Ref. Ref. 33 (5.8) 1.3 (0.9–1.8) 1.1 (0.8–1.7)
Major malformations 1,777 (2.6) 1,753 (2.6) Ref. Ref. 11 (1.9) 0.7 (0.4–1.4) 0.7 (0.4–1.3)
  1. Abbreviations: CI confidence interval, OR odds ratio, Ref. reference category.
  2. *Odds ratios (ORs) resulting from Generalized estimating equations analyses are presented in the table.
  3. aEarly pregnancy is defined as before pregnancy week 17.
  4. Malformations were defined according to the definitions of the MBRN and International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects.
  5. Adjusted for maternal age, parity, pre-pregnancy BMI, level of education, maternal smoking, folic acid use, UTI, previous miscarriages or stillbirths, maternal mother tongue and year of delivery.