Skip to main content

Table 1 Characteristics of women according to cranberry use, n = 68,522 a

From: Pregnancy outcome after use of cranberry in pregnancy – the Norwegian mother and child cohort study

  Total No cranberry use during pregnancy Use of cranberry during pregnancy   No exposure to cranberry and UTI Exposed to cranberry, UTI and antibiotics against UTI during pregnancy Exposed to cranberry, UTI and no antibiotics against UTI during pregnancy  
  No. (%) No. (%) No. (%)   N (%) N (%) N (%)  
  68,522 (100.0) 67,603 (98.7) 919 (1.3) P-valueb 60,846 (88.8) 254 (0.4) 300 (0.4) P-valueb
Age (years)         
≤ 24 8,034 (11.7) 7,930 (11.7) 104 (11.3) 0.621 6,893 (11.3) 28 (11.0) 32 (10.7) 0.952
25–29 23,050 (33.6) 22,725 (33.6) 325 (35.4) 20,442 (33.6) 88 (34.6) 106 (35.3)
30–34 26,157 (38.2) 25,822 (38.2) 335 (36.5) 23,454 (38.5) 92 (36.2) 110 (36.7)
≥ 35 11,281 (16.5) 11,126 (16.5) 155 (16.9) 10,057 (16.5) 46 (18.1) 52 (17.3)
Parity         
0 previous live births 29,778 (43.5) 29,272 (43.3) 506 (55.1) <0.001 26,090 (42.9) 152 (59.8) 147 (49.0) <0.001
≥1 38,738 (56.5) 38,325 (56.7) 413 (44.9) 34,750 (57.1) 102 (40.2) 153 (51.0)
Education c         
Primary 6,123 (8.9) 6,060 (9.0) 63 (6.9) <0.001 5,287 (8.7) 14 (5.5) 26 (8.7) 0.032
Secondary 20,519 (29.9) 20,261 (30.0) 258 (28.1) 18,069 (29.7) 64 (25.2) 97 (32.3)
Tertiary-short 27,204 (39.7) 26,777 (39.6) 427 (46.5) 24,264 (39.9) 128 (50.4) 120 (40.0)
Tertiary-long 13,112 (19.1) 12,956 (19.2) 156 (17.0) 11,817 (19.4) 45 (17.7) 50 (16.7)
Marital status         
Married/cohabitating 65,765 (96.0) 64,878 (96.0) 887 (96.5) 0.320 58,536 (96.2) 246 (96.7) 288 (96.0) 0.834
Other 2,427 (3.5) 2,400 (3.6) 27 (2.9) 2,017 (3.3) 7 (2.8) 11 (3.7)
Pre-pregnancy BMI d         
Underweight 2,055 (3.0) 2,022 (3.0) 33 (3.6) 0.195 1,799 (3.0) 7 (2.8) 15 (5.0) 0.218
Normal weight 43,058 (62.8) 42,446 (62.8) 612 (66.6) 38,377 (63.1) 167 (65.7) 178 (59.3)
Overweight 14,736 (21.5) 14,558 (21.5) 178 (19.4) 13,052 (21.5) 50 (19.7) 67 (22.3)
Obese 6,538 (9.5) 6,452 (9.5) 86 (9.4) 5,701 (9.4) 26 (10.2) 37 (12.3)
Physical activity         
Never 10,293 (15.0) 10,164 (15.0) 129 (14.0) 0.417 9,080 (14.9) 31 (12.2) 45 (15.0) 0.538
Less than once a week 16,218 (23.7) 16,000 (23.7) 218 (23.7) 14,423 (23.7) 57 (22.4) 65 (21.7)
1-2 times weekly 25,747 (37.6) 25,369 (37.5) 378 (41.1) 22,931 (37.7) 111 (43.7) 124 (41.3)
3 times or more weekly 11,121 (7.5) 10,969 (16.2) 152 (16.5) 9,871 (16.2) 42 (16.5) 50 (16.7)
Missing 5,143 (7.5) 5,101 (7.5) 42 (4.6) 4,541 (7.5) 13 (5.1) 16 (5.3)
Maternal mother tongue         
Norwegian 64,812 (94.6) 63,929 (94.6) 883 (96.1) 0.043 57,511 (94.5) 248 (97.6) 287 (95.7) 0.064
Other 3,710 (5.4) 3,674 (5.4) 36 (3.9) 3,335 (5.5) 6 (2.4) 13 (4.3)
Smoking at the end of pregnancy         
No 53,198 (77.6) 52,468 (77.6) 730 (79.4) 0.024 47,283 (77.7) 202 (79.5) 236 (78.7) 0.623
Sometimes 472 (0.7) 462 (0.7) 10 (1.1) 409 (0.7) 0 (0.0) 3 (1.0)
Daily 3,524 (5.1) 3,492 (5.2) 32 (3.5) 3041 (5.0) 10 (3.9) 14 (4.7)
Missing 11,328 (16.5) 11,181 (16.5) 147 (16.0) 10,113 (16.6) 42 (16.5) 47 (15.7)
Any folic acid use e         
No 32,098 (46.8) 31,715 (46.9) 383 (41.7) 0.007 28,356 (46.6) 108 (42.5) 123 (41.0) 0.044
Yes, before or during 21,735 (31.7) 21,417 (31.7) 318 (34.6) 19,294 (31.7) 96 (37.8) 97 (32.3)
Yes, before and during 14,689 (21.4) 14,471 (21.4) 218 (23.7) 13,196 (21.7) 50 (19.7) 80 (26.7)
Year of delivery         
1999-2002 13,640 (19.9) 13,482 (19.9) 158 (17.2) 0.038 11,985 (19.7) 43 (16.9) 69 (23.0) 0.192
2003-2006 54,882 (80.1) 54,121 (80.1) 761 (82.8) 48,861 (80.3) 211 (83.1) 231 (77.0)
Sick leave       
Yes 43,300 (63.2) 42,693 (63.2) 607 (66.1) 0.070 38,147 (62.7) 172 (67.7) 198 (66.0) 0.128
Previous miscarriages/stillbirths         
Yes 14,975 (21.9) 14,786 (21.9) 189 (20.6) 0.341 13,279 (21.8) 49 (19.3) 57 (19.0) 0.311
Vaginal infections f         
Yes 21,924 (32.0) 21,514 (31.8) 410 (44.6) <0.001 18,642 (30.6) 125 (49.2) 145 (48.3) <0.001
Urinary tract infection (UTI)         
UTI during early pregnancyg 4,624 (6.7) 4,222 (6.2) 402 (43.7) <0.001 - - -  
UTI during late pregnancyh 3,766 (5.5) 3,462 (5.1) 304 (33.1) <0.001 - - -  
UTI during pregnancy at any time point 7,311 (10.7) 6,757 (10.0) 554 (60.3) <0.001 - - -  
  1. aNumbers may not add up to 68,522 due to missing values.
  2. bP-values obtained by Pearson’s chi-square test or Fischer’s exact test when less than 5 in one or more of the cells. Significant findings are in bold.
  3. cPrimary: <10 years of education (the Norwegian compulsory primary + secondary school), secondary: 10–12 years (high school/upper secondary or vocational school), tertiary-short: college education, tertiary-long: university education.
  4. dBody mass index (BMI) is the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters: underweight: <18.5 kg/m2, normal weight: 18.5–24.9 kg/m2; overweight: 25.0–29.9 kg/m2, obese ≥30 kg/m2.
  5. eFolic acid use is reported from the 4 weeks prior to pregnancy to 3 months of gestation.
  6. fIncluding vaginal thrush, vaginal catarrh/unusual discharge and/or chlamydia.
  7. gEarly pregnancy is defined as before pregnancy week 17.
  8. hLate pregnancy is defined as during or after pregnancy week 17.