Skip to main content

Table 1 Anti-microbial properties of Cinnamomum zeylanicum

From: Medicinal properties of ‘true’ cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum): a systematic review

Author [ref] Organism(s) tested Main outcomes
Country(s)   
Agasthya AS, et al. [14] Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Salmonella paratyphi A/B, Brucella abortus and Brucella melitensis CZ extract were active only against Brucella melitensis
India
Barattha MT, et al. [15] Clostridium perfringens, E. coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, S. aureus, Streptococcus faecalis and Yersinia enterocolitica Volatile oils from CZ had significant activity against the growth of food poisoning organisms, food spoilage organisms and organisms of faecal origin
UK, Italy, Portugal
Bayoub K, et al. [16] Listeria monocytogenes, S. aurus, E. coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, Acinetobacter baumannii CZ extracts demonstrated significant inhibitory effects on S. aureus, Enterobacter cloacae, Acinetobacter baumannii and Listeria monocytogenes (MIC 0.4 mg/ml)
Morocco
Bhatia M, et al. [17] Candida albicans Among all spices tested CZ inhibited C. albicans most effectively (MIC 7.81 μl/ml)
India
Carmo ES, et al. [18] Aspergillus species (A. fumigatus, A. niger, A. flavus, A. parasiticus, A. terreus and A. ochraceus) CZ essential oil possesses strong anti-aspergillus activity inhibiting the growth, spore germination and causing deleterious cellular morphological changes
Brazil
Dubey RC, et al. [19] Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Bacillus subtilis CZ essential oils inhibited growth of all organisms. Gram-negative organisms were more susceptible than gram-positive ones.
India
Elumalai S, et al. [20] Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli Percentage inhibition with CZ was; B. Subtilis (40.0%), Klebsiella pneumonia (42.2%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (45.0%), Staphylococcus aureus (37.8%) and Escherichia coli (40.0%). Inhibition activity of C. Cassia greater than CZ.
India
Fabio A, et al. [21] S. pyogenes, S. agalactiae, S. pneumonia, Klebsiella pneumoniae, H. Influenza and S. aureus Of the 13 essential oils evaluated CZ and thyme showed the highest activity inhibiting all the strains studied
Italy
Ferhout H, et al. [22] Malassezia furfur and Candida albicans Of the 3 oils studied CZ oil exhibited the strongest activity towards the two yeasts. M. furfur showed a greater sensitivity to CZ
France
Gonçalves JLS, et al. [23] Human rota-virus CZ leaves and bark was able to inhibit the propagation of human rotavirus 32.4% and 33.9% respectively.
Brazil
Guerra FQS, et al. [24] Acinetobacter spp. CZ essential oils suppresses the growth of Acinetobacter spp. and a synergistic effect was observed when combined with antibiotics
Brazil
Hosseininejad Z, et al. [25] Helicobacter pylori CZ exhibited the most inhibitory effect on H. pylori and essential oils of CZ with IC50=0.3 μl/ml completely inhibited the growth of H. pylori.
Iran
Jantan IB, et al. [26] Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. tonsurans, T. rubrum, Microsporum canis, M. gypseum, M. audouini, Aspergillus fumigates, Candida albicans, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis and Crytococcus neoformans Among all the essential oils, the leaf and bark oils of CZ showed the highest activity against all the fungi with MIC values of 0.04 to 0.63 μg μL−1
Malaysia
Jirovetz L, et al. [27] Pseudomonas fluorescens, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus CZ essential oils were active against E. coli and S. aureus. However P. fluorescens was resistant.
Austria, Cameroon
Khan R, et al. [28] Multi drug resistant (MDR) strains of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Candida albicans. The MDR strains were sensitive to the antimicrobial activity of CZ.
India
Lima EO, et al. [29] Trichophyton rubrum, T. mentagraphytes, Microsporum canis and Epidermophyton floccosum CZ inhibited 80% of the dermatophyte strains tested and produced inhibition zones more than 10 mm in diameter
Brazil
Maidment C, et al. [30] Escherichia coli B, staphylococcus albus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae CZ demonstrated microbial inhibitory effect; alcoholic extracts had greater activity than aqueous extracts. Essential oils had greater activity than the spices. MICs were smaller with the oils than with the spices.
UK
Mandal S, et al. [31] Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus CZ and C. aromaticum showed the strongest in vitro antibacterial activity against Methicillin Resistant S. aureus
India
Mastura M, et al. [32] Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. rubrum, Microsporum canis, Candida albicans and C. glabrata CZ was a moderate inhibitor of all the fungi tested (MIC values 1.26 – 2.51 μg/μl)
Malaysia
Meades J, Jr et al. [33] Escherichia coli (acetyl-CoA carboxylase inhibition) CZ inhibited the carboxyl-transferase component of E. coli acetyl-CoA carboxylase enzyme.
USA, UK, South Africa
Mishra AK, et al. [34] E. coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas spp., S. aureus and S. pneumonia Of the 3 essential oils evaluated CZ oil showed the strongest inhibitory activity against all micro-organisms tested.
India
Negi PS, et al. [35] Bacillus cereus, B. coaguiaris, B. subtilis, S. aureus, E. coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa All crude extracts of CZ fruits showed antibacterial activity. Ethyl acetate and benzene extracts showed higher activity than methanol and water extract.
India, USA
Noudeh GD, et al. [36] S. aureus, Bacillus subtilis, E. coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa CZ inhibited the growth of all tested Gram- positive and Gram-negative strains.
Iran, UK
Rana IS, et al. [37] Pseudomonas aeruginosa, S. aureus, Salmonella typhimurium and Bacillus subtilis Of the 19 essential oils evaluated the highest antibacterial activity was depicted by CZ against all bacteria
India
Senhaji O, et al. [38] E. coli O157:H7 In the presence of 0.05% of the oil, most of cells were killed after 30 min, suggesting a bactericidal action against E. coli. The MIC was around 625 ppm.
Morocco
Shahverdi AR, et al. [39] Clostridium difficile The essential oil of CZ bark enhanced the bactericidal activity of clindamycin and decreased the MIC of clindamycin for C. difficile.
Iran
Singh HB, et al. [40] Aspergillus niger. A. fumigatus. A. nididans, A. fiavus, Candida albicans, C, tropicalis, C, pseudotropicalis and Hisioplasma capsulatum Vapours of CZ bark oil and cinnamic aldehyde are effectively toxic at very low doses and at high inoculum density against the test fungi causing respiratory tract mycoses
India
Sivakumar A, et al. [41] Mycobacterium tuberculosis Water (MIC-100 μg/ml) and ethanolic (MIC-200 μg/ml) extracts of CZ was observed to have activity against M. tuberculosis.
India
Tekwu E, et al. [42] Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains H37Rv and H37Ra The MIC for H37Ra and H37Rv strains were 1024μg/ml and 512μg/ml respectively and MBC was >2048 μg/ml for both strains.
Cameroon, Turkey
Unlu, M et al. [43] S. aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, S. pneumonia, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, Bacillus cereus, Acinetobacter lwoffii, Enterobacter aerogenes, E. coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhimurium, Clostridium perfringens, Listeria monocytogenes, Listeria ivanovii, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis and Candida krusei The essential oil of CZ showed strong antimicrobial activity against all microorganisms tested,
Turkey