Inhibitory effect of the compounds isolated from A. victorialis on high glucose-induced TGF-β1 secretion. Quiescent MMCs were treated with high glucose for 48 h followed by 10 μM of the compounds (1–8). To determine the amount of secreted TGF-β1 protein in the medium, ELISAs were performed on MMCs treated with high glucose. Experiments were done in triplicate on three separate occasions. Results are the mean ± S.E.M. (n=4). ***p<0.001 vs. untreated cells; ###p<0.001, ##p<0.01, #p<0.05 vs. HG.