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Table 4 Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of Asarum heterotropoides root constituents against five harmful and two nonpathogenic intestinal bacteria using a microtiter plate-based antibacterial bioassay

From: Growth-Inhibiting and morphostructural effects of constituents identified in Asarum heterotropoides root on human intestinal bacteria

  MIC (mg/mL)
Gram-positive bacteriaa Gram-negative bacteriab
Material Cd Cm Cp Sa Bfc Ecc St
δ-3-Carene 0.70 cB 0.70 eB 0.70 dB 0.18 cC 0.70 cB 0.18 dC 2.94 bA
Methyleugenol 0.70 cD 1.47 dC 5.80 bA 2.94 aB 2.94 aB 1.47 cC 1.47 cC
1,8-Cineole 1.47 bB 1.47 dB 2.94 cA 1.47 bB 2.94 aA 2.94 bA 2.94 bA
Pellitorine 2.94 aA 1.47 dB 0.70 dC 1.47 bB 2.94 aA 1.47 cB 1.47 cB
(−)-Asarinin 2.94 aA 2.94 cA 2.94 cA 2.94 aA 2.94 aA 2.94 bA 1.47 cB
α-Asarone 2.94 aC 5.80 bB 12.0 aA 1.47 bD 1.47 bD 2.94 bC 1.47 cD
Safrole 2.94 aD 23.50 aA 2.94 cD 2.94 aD 1.47 bE 7.20 aC 12.0 aB
Ciprofloxacin 0.25 dA 0.125 fB 0.125 eB 0.063 dC 0.125 dB 0.063 eC 0.063 dC
  1. Means in a column followed by the same lowercase letter and means in a row followed by the same uppercase letter are not significantly different (P > 0.05; Bonferroni test).
  2. aCd, C. difficile ATCC 9689; Cm, C. paraputiricum ATCC 25780; Cp, C. perfringens ATCC 13124; Sa, S. aureus ATCC 12600.
  3. bBf, B. fragilis ATCC 25285; Ec, E. coli ATCC 11775; St, S. enterica serovar Typhimurium ATCC 13311.
  4. cNonpathogenic bacteria.