Temporal production of BDNF in the brain tissues and SDF-1α and VEGF levels in the plasma following EA. (A) Representative western blot of BDNF protein in the cerebral cortex at 0 h (control), 6 h, 12 h, 24 h, and 48 h after the end of EA stimulation. The lower panel shows densitometric analysis of the western blot of BDNF. Relative abundance of BDNF compared with β-actin. (B) Plasma SDF-1α and VEGF levels in mice at 0 h (control), 6 h, 12 h, 24 h, and 48 h after the end of EA stimulation were analyzed by ELISA. The results are expressed as the mean ± SEM. *, P<0.05 and **, P<0.01 vs. control. Numbers of mice used for BDNF, SDF-1α and VEGF measurement are shown on each bar.