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Table 3 Participant responses to belief that supplements are essential for health by demographic groups

From: Dietary supplement users vary in attitudes and sources of dietary supplement information in East and West geographic regions: a cross-sectional study

  Yes, essential No, not essential Don’t know Odds ratio, raw (95% CI)a Odds ratio, adjusted (95% CI)b
Geographic location (n = 618)cd      
East 113 (48.7) 78 (33.6) 41 (17.7) Ref Ref
West 15 (30.7) 187 (48.5) 42 (10.9) 0.72 (0.52, 1.00) 0.45 (0.29, 0.72)**
Sex (n = 610)      
Male 111 (36.8) 149 (49.3) 42 (13.9) Ref Ref
Female 158 (51.3) 112 (36.4) 38 (12.3) 1.81 (1.31, 2.50)*** 1.31 (0.89, 1.91)
Age group (n = 609)d      
21–39 63 (34.2) 102 (55.4) 19 (10.3) Ref Ref
40–59 130 (45.0) 113 (39.1) 46 (15.9) 1.57 (1.07, 2.30)* 1.18 (0.76, 1.84)
60-75 73 (53.6) 47 (34.6) 16 (11.8) 2.22 (1.41, 3.51)** 1.65 (0.98, 2.77)
BMI (n = 618)      
Normal weight 119 (46.0) 111 (42.9) 29 (11.2) Ref Ref
Overweight 73 (36.7) 95 (47.7) 31 (15.6) 0.68 (0.47, 0.99)* 0.82 (0.52, 1.28)
Obese 78 (48.8) 59 (36.9) 23 (14.4) 1.11 (0.75, 1.66) 1.27 (0.79, 2.05)
Supplement use (n = 618)      
No 20 (12.1) 107 (64.5) 39 (23.5) Ref Ref
Yes 250 (55.3) 158 (35.0) 44 (9.7) 9.03 (5.46, 14.9)* 11.37 (6.35, 20.39)***
Physical activity (n = 603)      
Yes 225 (46.0) 200 (40.9) 64 (13.1) 1.70 (1.11, 2.61)* 1.55 (0.94, 2.55)
No 38 (33.3) 60 (52.6) 16 (14.0) Ref Ref
Alcohol use (n = 613)      
Yes 162 (40.8) 185 (46.6) 50 (12.6) 0.70 (0.50, 0.98)* 0.70 (0.47, 1.05)
No 107 (49.5) 77 (35.7) 32 (14.8) Ref Ref
Tobacco use (n = 612)      
Yes 34 (44.7) 26 (34.2) 16 (21.1) 1.03 (0.64, 1.68) 1.30 (0.68, 2.49)
No 235 (43.8) 235 (43.8) 66 (12.3) Ref Ref
  1. aOdds Ratio is the odds of believing supplements are essential compared to other responses.
  2. bAdjusted odds ratios are controlled for all independent variables.
  3. cn may vary between variables due to missing or incomplete data.
  4. dData expressed as n(%).
  5. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001.