Induction of PPD on paraptosis-like cell death. (A) HCT-116 cells were treated with 10–35 μM of PPD in combination with or without 10 μg/ml of cycloheximide (Cyclo) for 24 h, and then pictured. (B) The percentage of cytoplasmic vacuoles with 10–35 μM of PPD. (C) Mitochondrial swelling induced by 35 μM of PPD observed by monitoring absorbance at 540 nm in isolated human liver mitochondria. Data are presented as the mean ± standard error. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01 vs. control.