Effects of bufalin on expression of E-cadherin, MMP-9, and MMP-2 in hepatoma cells. The protein levels of E-cadherin (A, B) and MMP-9 and MMP-2 (E, F) were analyzed by western blotting in HCCLM3 and HepG2 cells after exposure to bufalin (100 nmol/L) and LY294002 (10 μmol/L). GAPDH was used as a loading control. Immunofluorescence assay showed expression of E-cadherin after exposure to bufalin and LY294002 in the two hepatoma cell lines (C, D). Columns represent the mean of three individual experiments performed in triplicate; error bars represent SD; LY represent LY294002. *P < 0.05, *P < 0.01, vs. controls.