PANE reduced the number of IL-4
cells in the duodenum. Mice were treated as the protocol described in the Methods section. The expression of IL-4 in the duodenum was examined using IHC staining. Representative sections stained with IL-4 were shown (original magnification, x200). Cells with red signals around the blue nuclei indicate the IL-4 positive cells. Six measurements per section were counted. Data are expressed as the mean ± SE of 11 samples per group pooled from 3 independent experiments. *, p < 0.05 compared to the VH group.