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Table 6 Dietary supplements used; respondents reported purposes and adverse effects (n=105)*

From: Prevalence of herbal and dietary supplement usage in Thai outpatients with chronic kidney disease: a cross-sectional survey

Types of dietary supplement used Frequency (%) Purposes given by respondents Adverse effects experienced
Vitamins and minerals 17 (16.2) Well-being Weight gain
Essence of chicken drink 14 (13.3) Well-being Increased blood sugar
Germ oil 13 (12.4) Well-being -
Rice Bran oil 9 (8.6) Well-being, CKD, diabetes -
Fish oil 8 (7.6) Well-being, cardiovascular diseases -
Protein 7 (6.7) Well-being Proteinuria
Chlorophyll 6 (5.7) Well-being, CKD, diabetes, hypertension -
Swiftlet’s nest drink 5 (4.8) Well-being -
Bee pollen 2 (1.9) Well-being -
Wheatgrass 2 (1.9) Well-being Increased SCr
Fibre 2 (1.9) Constipation -
Coconut oil 1 (0.9) Well-being Diarrhoea
  1. * Respondents reported more than one type of dietary supplement used; SCr = Serum creatinine.