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Table 5 Herbs used; respondents reported purposes and adverse effects (n=199)*

From: Prevalence of herbal and dietary supplement usage in Thai outpatients with chronic kidney disease: a cross-sectional survey

Types of herb used Frequency (%) Main purpose given by respondents Adverse effects experienced
Kariyat (Andrographis paniculata) 23 (11.6) Common cold, fever, sore throat, diabetes Increased SCr
Turmeric (Curcuma longa) 19 (9.5) Gastrointestinal symptoms**, constipation, CKD -
Horseradish tree (Moringa oleifera) 16 (8.0) Diabetes, hypertension, constipation Unable to stop bleeding
Mixed botanical extract or fruit drink 12 (6.0) CKD, diabetes, well-being -
Ginseng (Panax spp.) 7 (3.5) Well-being -
Holy mushroom (Garnoderma lucidum) 5 (2.5) CKD Oedema
River spiderwort (Tradescantia fluminensis) 4 (2.0) CKD Increased SCr, fatigue
Babbler’s Bill Leaf (Thunbergia laurifolia) 3 (1.5) Detoxification, diabetes -
Senna (Senna alexandrina) 3 (1.5) Constipation -
Ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba) 3 (1.5) Improved brain function -
Boesenbergia (Boesenbergia rotunda) 3 (1.5) CKD -
Garlic 3 (1.5) Dyslipidemia -
Mixed Thai traditional herbs called “Ya Hom” 3 (1.5) Well-being, fainting, dizziness -
Heart-leaved moonseed (Tinospora cripa) 3 (1.5) Diabetes,well-being -
Coix seed (Semen Coicis) 3 (1.5) CKD, well-being, diabetes -
Vap Ca (Houttuynia cordata) 2 (1.0) Kidney stones, CKD -
Aloe (Aloe vera) 2 (1.0) Diuretic effects, well-being -
Blue Pea (Clitoria ternatea) 2 (1.0) CKD -
Mixed 3 or 6 types of mushrooms 2 (1.0) CKD -
Shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes) 2 (1.0) CKD, well-being -
Cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) 2 (1.0) Diabetes -
Mixed Thai traditional herbs called “Ya Khom” 2 (1.0) Fever -
Mixed Thai traditional herbs called “Ka Sai” 2 (1.0) Constipation, well-being -
Jujube (Zizyphus mauritiana) and Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) 2 (1.0) CKD, dyslipidemia -
Spirulina 2 (1.0) Detoxification, diabetes -
Lemongrass 1 (0.5) Dyslipidemia and CKD -
Boesenbergia, sweet basil, honey and lime juice 1 (0.5) CKD Fainting
Boesenbergia, mint, ginger, galangal, lemongrass, kaffir lime leaves and shallots 1 (0.5) CKD -
Spring bitter cucumber (Momordica cochinchinensis) 1 (0.5) CKD -
Lime 1 (0.5) Kidney stones -
Chinese folk remedy - Cordyceps, Lovage (Angelica sinensis), deer antler velvet, cinnamon and Schisandra berry (Schisandra chinensis) 1 (0.5) CKD -
Paragrass roots (Brachiaria mutica) and pomegranate leaves (Punica granatum) 1 (0.5) CKD -
Leaves of Clerodendrum petasites 1 (0.5) CKD -
Java tea 1 (0.5) Diuretic effects -
  1. * Respondents reported more than one type of herb used.
  2. ** Flatulance, dyspepsia and peptic ulcers; SCr = Serum creatinine.