Skip to main content

Table 4 Antimicrobial results (macrodilution assays) obtained for honey produced by Melipona stingless bees and for commercial honeys produced by Apis sp. bees for different bacterial strains

From: Antimicrobial activity and rutin identification of honey produced by the stingless bee Melipona compressipes manaosensis and commercial honey

Honey sample Honey dilutiona Bacterial species
S. a:ureus E. coli P. vulgaris S. sonnei S. paratyphi Klebsiella sp.
AR 11 + + - - - -
1:2 + + - - - -
1:4 + + - - + +
1:6 + + + + + +
1:8 + + + + + +
Positive control + + + + + +
Negative control - - - - - -
AD 11 - + - + + -
1:2 - + - + + -
1:4 + + - + + +
1:6 + + + + + +
1:8 + + + + + +
Positive control + + + + + +
Negative control - - - - - -
B 11 - - - - - -
1:2 - - - - - -
1:4 - + - - - -
1:6 + + + - + +
1:8 + + + + + +
Positive control + + + + + +
Negative control - - - - - -
C 11 - - - - + -
1:2 - - - - + -
1:4 + + + + + +
1:6 + + + + + +
1:8 + + + + + +
Positive control + + + + + +
Negative control - - - - - -
D 11 - - - - + -
1:2 - + - - + -
1:4 - + - + + +
1:6 - + - + + +
1:8 + + - + + +
Positive control + + + + + +
Negative control - - - - - -
  1. A: Honey from stingless bee Melipona compressipes manaosensis collected during rainy (R) and dry (D) seasons. B: Eucalyptus honey from Apis sp. bees acquired at a store in Rio Grande do Sul. C: Honey from Apis sp. bees acquired at a store in Ceará. D: Commercial honey from the stingless bee Jandaíra (M. subnitida), produced by the community of RDS Tupé (rural zone of Manaus).
  2. a Diluted in culture broth (w/w). + Inhibition zone between 10 and 15 mm. - Absence of inhibition zone.