Effect of Clerodendrum polysaccharide fractions on AP-1/NF-κB activation. Human THP-1Blue monocytes were incubated for 24 hr with the indicated concentrations of CSP-NU (■, panel A), CSP-AU (□, panel A), CSP-NB (●, panel A), CSP-AB (○, panel A), CSP-AU1 (♦, panel B), CSP-AU2 (◊, panel B), CSP-NU1 (▲, panel C), CSP-NU2 (∆, panel C), or 200 ng/ml LPS (, panel A). Alkaline phosphatase activity was analyzed spectrophotometrically (absorbance at 655 nm) in the cell supernatants, as described. Values are the mean ± S.D. of triplicate samples from one experiment, which is representative of two independent experiments. Statistically significant differences (* p<0.05) between PBS-treated cells and cells treated with polysaccharide fractions or LPS are indicated.