Effect of Clerodendrum polysaccharide fractions on monocyte/macrophage GM-CSF production. Human MonoMac-6 cells (panels A-C) or PBMCs (panels D-F) were incubated for 24 hr with the indicated concentrations of CSP-NU (■, panels A and D), CSP-AU (□, panels A and D), CSP-NB (●, panels A and D), CSP-AB (○, panels A and D), CSP-AU1 (♦, panels B and E), CSP-AU2 (◊, panels B and E), CSP-NU1 (▲, panels C and F), CSP-NU2 (∆, panels C and F), or 200 ng/ml LPS (, panels A and D). Cell-free supernatants were collected, and extracellular TNF was quantified by ELISA. Values are the mean ± S.D. of triplicate samples from one experiment, which is representative of three independent experiments. Statistically significant differences (* p<0.05) between PBS-treated cells and cells treated with polysaccharide fractions or LPS are indicated.