Effect of Clerodendrum polysaccharide fractions on serum cytokines. Balb/c mice (n=4) were treated by i.p. injection with polysaccharide fractions CSP-AU1, CSP-AU2, CSP-NU1 (single dose of 250 mg/kg in 100 μl of PBS), LPS (single dose of 500 μg/kg in 100 μl of PBS), or PBS (100 μl). After 2 hr, mice were sacrificed, and serum was collected. Serum cytokine levels were evaluated using a MultiAnalyte ELISArray kit. Cytokine levels are shown as fold increase compared to background (PBS-treated mice). Inset A. CSP-AU1 was administrated i.p. (single dose 250 mg/kg), mice (n=3) were sacrificed at the indicated time points, and serum was collected. Inset B. The indicated doses of CSP-AU1 were administrated i.p., the mice (n=3) were sacrificed after 2 hr, and serum was collected. Serum TNF levels were evaluated using ELISA. For the Figure and Insets, the data are presented as mean ± S.D. of triplicate samples from different mice and are representative of two independent experiments. Statistically significant differences (* p<0.05) between animals treated with PBS and CSP-AU1 or LPS are indicated.