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Table 2 Summary of ethnobotanical uses versus measured biological activities of isolated secondary metabolites

From: Cameroonian medicinal plants: a bioactivity versus ethnobotanical survey and chemotaxonomic classification

Plant family Plant species Ethnobotanical uses Part of plant studied Isolated metabolites Measured activity of Isolated metabolite
Acanthaceae Brillantaisia lamium The aerial part of this plant is used in the treatment of various microbial infections, such as skin diseases and infections of the urinary tract. aerial parts 11, 24, 25 and 26 Antimicrobial, Tamokou et al.[73]
Amaryllidaceae Crinum purpurascens The macerated leaves are used as anti-poison or as antidote of mystical poisoning. Also, an infusion of the leaves is used for the treatment of some microbial infections. leaves 27 and 28 Anti-salmonellal and antibacterial, Nkanwen et al.[74]
Asteraceae Senecio mannii The plant is used to treat microbial and fungal infections. aerial parts 29 and 30 Antifungal, Ndom et al.[75]
Bignoniaceae Stereospermum zenkeri The bark is to treat bronchitis; its roots and leaves are used to cure fever and microbial infections. stem bark 31 and 32 Antimicrobial, Lenta et al.[48]
Bombacaceae Ceiba pentandra The plant is well reputed in for the treatment of many illnesses, such as, headache, dizziness, constipation, skin diseases, mental troubles, and fever. stem bark 33 and 34 Antifungal, Ngounou et al.[76]
Caesalpiniaceae Cassia petersiana The leaves are generally used for the treatment of typhoid fever. leaves 35, 36, 37, 38, 39 and 40 Antisalmonellal activity, Djemgou et al.[77], Gatsing et al.[78]
Combretaceae Pteleopsis hylodendron Treatment of STDs, female sterility, kidney and liver disorders and dropsy. bark 41, 42, 43 and 44 Active against Staphylococcus aureus , S . pyogenes , and Baccilus cereus, Rahman et al.[79]
  Terminalia superba Used to treat gastroenteritis, diabetes, female infertility and abdominal pain. bark 45 and 46 α-Glycosidase inhibition, immunoinhibitory activity, Tabopda et al.[80]
Ebenaceae Diospyros canaliculata Used in the treatment of whooping cough, leprosy, snake bites, scabies, skin eruptions, dysentery, eye infections, menstrual troubles, abdominal pains, wounds, ulcers, chest pains and skin infections. stem bark 11, 47 and 48 Antifungal activity, Dzoyem et al.[81]
Hypericaceae, Clusiceae or Guttiferae Hypericum lanceolatum Used to treat several ailments including malaria, skin infections, venereal diseases, gastrointestinal disorders, tumours, and infertility, epilepsies and nerves problems. stem bark 49, 50, 51 and 52 Anti-malarial, Zofou et al.[62]
  Harungana madagascariensis Effective in the treatment of jaundice, diarrhoea, dysentery, typhoid fever, and constipation. Decoction of leaves is also used in liver problems and against anaemia. The roots and bark are used to treat malaria. stem bark 49, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57 and 58 Antiplasmodial, Lenta et al.[63]
Hypericaceae, Clusiceae or Guttiferae Garcinia Polyantha The plant has some anti-malarial property. The yellow resinous sap (latex) is used to make a dressing for wounds. root bark 59 This compound shows anti-malarial activity by strong chemosuppression of parasitic growth, Lannang et al.[64]
  Allanblackia gabonensis Used against infections like dysentery, cold, and toothache. stem bark 60, 61, 62, 63 and 64 Activity against Leishmania amazonensis and antimicrobial activities against a range of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, Azebaze et al.[82]
  Symphonia globulifera Used to cure several diseases such as stomach and skin aches. It is also used as laxative for pregnant women and as a general tonic. The bark is used by traditional healers to treat malaria. seed shells 65, 66, 67 and 68 Anti-malarial, antioxidant, Ngouela et al.[65]
  Psorospermum febrifugum Plants of this genus are largely used in the African folk medicine as febrifugal, antidote against poison and purgative. They are also used as a remedy for the treatment of leprosy, skin diseases (such as dermatitis, scabies and eczemas) and subcutaneous wounds. roots 69 Antimicrobial (bacteria and fungi), Tsaffack et al.[83]
  Pentadesma butyracea Different parts of the plant are used in tropical African medicine to treat fever, coughs, constipation, bronchitis, and venereal diseases and viral infections. fruit pericarp 70 Erythrocyte susceptibility, antiplasmodial, Lenta et al.[84]
Ixonanthaceae Irvingia gabonensis The stem bark decoction is used in the treatment of gonorrhoea, gastrointestinal or hepatic disorders, as a purgative, as well as a host of ailments. The decoction of the root barks is also used to treat diarrhoea and as mouth bath in the dental neuralgias. stem bark 49, 53, 71, 72, 73 and 74 Antimicrobial. Compound 74 is particularly active against Neisseria gonorrhoeae, confirming the ethnobotanical use of the plant in the treatment of the disease caused by this agent, Kuete et al.[85]
stem bark 53
Hepatoprotective activity. This crude extract and isolated compound 53 might be useful for the prevention of toxic-induced and free radical-mediated liver diseases, since it has been suggested that compounds may be used as prophylactic agents, Donfack et al.[86]
Leguminosae-Papilionoideae Millettia griffoniana Crude extracts from root and stem bark are used to treat boils, insect bites, inflammatory affections like pneumonia and asthma, sterility, amenorrhea and menopausal disorders. root bark 75 and 76 Estrogenic activity, Wanda et al.[45]
  Erythrina sigmoidea Widely used in Cameroon to treat syphilis, wounds of ulcers and female sterility. stem bark 77, 78 and 79 Antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Kouam et al.[8789]
Meliaceae Entandrophragma angolense Used as an anti-malarial or antipyretic in traditional medicine. stem bark 80 and 81 Antiplasmodial, Bickii et al.[67]
  Turraeanthus africanus Treatment of typhoid fever. seeds 82 Antisalmonellal activity against Salmonella typhi, S. paratyphi A and S. paratyphi B, Djemgou et al.[90]
   The species of this genus have been used for the treatment of cardiovascular disease, stomach ache, rheumatism pains, and asthma. The stem bark is used in the treatment of intestinal worms. seeds 82 Antimicrobial, Djemgou et al.[90]
   The trunk bark and seeds of this plant are boiled together with Carica papaya leaves, the seeds of Aframomum melegueta and lime and used for treatment of malaria and other fevers. seeds 83, 84 and 85 Antiplasmodial activity, Ngemenya et al.[91]
Leguminosae- Mimosoideae Cylicodiscus gabunensis Used to prepare remedies for infectious diseases and is known for its antibacterial and antiplasmodial activities. stem bark 86 Exhibited antimicrobial activity against Proteus vulgaris, Nchancho et al.[92]
  Albizia adianthifolia Used traditionally to treat several ailments, including infectious and associated diseases. stem bark 24 Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, Tamokou et al.[93]
Monimiaceae Glossocalyx brevipes The macerated leaves are added to anti-fever preparations. leaves 87, 88 and 89 Anti-malarial, Mbah et al.[66]
Moraceae Morus mesozygia Roots, stem and leaves are used to treat syphilis, dermatitis, rheumatism, asthenias, fever and malaria. stem bark 90, 91 and 92 Cytotoxic and anti-malarial, Zelefack et al.[68]
  Antiaris africana Bark extracts are used for the treatment of chest pain, leaf decoctions for the treatment of syphilis, and the latex is a purgative agent. It is also used in the treatment of sore throat, leprosy and cancer. stem bark 93 Antioxidant and anticancer, Kuete et al.[94]
  Treculia obovoidea Traditionally used to treat skin diseases, dental allergy, amoebic dysentery and AIDS twigs 94 Antimicrobial activity, Kuete et al.[95]
Moraceae Artocarpus communis Treatment of cardiovascular diseases, used as food; other parts of the plants are traditionally used to treat headache, infectious and associated diseases such as toothache, eye problems, ear infections, herpes, enlarged spleen, sprains, contusions, swelling, chest pain and vomiting from heart problems, boils, abscess, and skin infections. root 95 and 96 Antimicrobial activities, Kuete et al.[96]
  Dorstenia barteri Used in the treatment of malaria. twigs 97, 98, 99, 100, 101 and 102 Anti-malarial activity, Ngameni et al.[69]
  Ficus cordata Used against hyperaesthesia, ataxia, muscle tremor, padding motions and jaundice, which could be a symptom of several related liver diseases. stem bark 11, 103, 104, 105 and 106 Hepatoprotective and cytotoxic, Donfack et al.[97]
Myristicaceae Pycnanthus angolensis Treatment of stomach pain, chest pain and rhinitis problems, malaria, toothache, fungal skin infections, chest pain, oral thrush, and worms; some further claim a folkloric use for the treatment of leprosy. stem bark 107, 108 and 109 Antifungal activity, Wabo et al.[98]
Olacaceae Coula edulis Treatment of stomach ache and skin diseases. stem bark 110 and 111 Antidermatophytic activity against Microsporum audouinii and Epidermophyton floccoseum, Tamokou et al.[99]
Sapotaceae Baillonella Toxisperma Treatment of abscesses, infertility, stomach troubles, convulsion, rheumatism and malaria. stem bark 49 and 112 Activity against Plasmodium falciparum, Mbah et al.[70]
Verbenaceae Vitex cienkowskii Used in the treatment of many disorders, including cardiovascular disease. stem bark 113 Vasorelaxant, antioxidant and hypertensive effect, Dongmo et al.[100]
Zingiberaceae Aframomum zambesiacum Used to treat fevers. seeds 114, 115 and 116 Anti-malarial, Kenmogne et al.[71]
  Reneilmia cincinnata Used to treat fevers and as a spice. fruits 117, 118 and 119 Anti-malarial, Tchuendem et al.[72]