F. convolvulus seed induces activity in an estrogen-responsive cell line. A. Seed extracts of F. convolvulus and F. dumetorum agonize estrogen receptor in human ovarian carcinoma BG1Luc4E2 cells. Seed (8 g) was extracted in EtOAc and BG1Luc4E2 cells were treated with indicated concentration of E2 or seed extract. Luciferase activity in cell lysates was determined after 24 h. Values represent the mean ± SD of triplicate determinations. Seed extract concentrations at and above 8 g/mL caused significant cell death and were not included in the analysis. B - Multiple fractions from crude chromatography of F. convolvulus seed (8 g/mL) exhibited greater estrogenic activity than whole seed extract in BG1Luc4E2 cells. Solvent composition of fractions 1–7 is described in Additional file 1. Activity of treatments (fractions and negative control, Brassica kaber) was expressed as a percent of E2 induction (1 nM). The luciferase induction profile for F. dumetorum crude fractions was similar to that shown here. Luciferase activity in cell lysates was measured 24 h after treatment. Values with * indicate significant difference above background using Student’s t-test (2-tailed, paired) and represent the mean ± SD of triplicate determinations.