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Table 1 Egyptian herbal medicines reported for treatment of age- related diseases

From: In-vitro evaluation of selected Egyptian traditional herbal medicines for treatment of alzheimer disease

No. Plant species Plant family Voucher No. Part used Collection site Arabic name Traditional uses
1 Adhatoda vasica Nees. Acanthaceae STDF-1 Aerial parts El-Orman garden No traditional use reported
2 Aloe vera. L. Aloaceae STDF-2 Dried juice El-Orman garden Improves mental capacity, benefits vitality, anti-depressant [12]. Used by pharaohs for chest pains, headaches, skin diseases and allergies [21],
3 Anacyclus pyrethrum L. Asteraceae STDF-5 Roots Herbal shop Nerve tonic, improves cerebral blood circulation, remedy for paralysis [12].
4 Boswellia sacra Flueck. Burseraceae STDF-6 Gum Oman Anti-depressant enhances mental capacity, cures frequent forgetfulness, [12, 14]. Boswellia sp. was used by ancient Egyptians for rheumatism, joint pain and facial wrinkles [21].
5 Brassica rapa ssp rapa Brassicaceae STDF-8 Root Local market Aphrodisiac, anti-ageing, hearing disorders [12].
6 Brassica nigra L. Brassicaceae STDF-9 Seeds Herbal shop Anti-ageing strengthens the vitality [21]. Aphrodisiac, joints disorders and chest pain [11, 13, 14]. The Pharaohs used mustard seeds to treat muscle, joint and chest pains [21].
7 Emblica officinalis Gaertn Euphorbiaceae STDF-10 Fruits El-Fayom Improves memory, stimulant, and restoratives for all organs [21].
8 Ferula assafoetida Boiss. & Buhse Apiaceae STDF-12 Gum Iran Stimulant, strong aphrodisiac, strong nerve tonic, relieves on-going mental and physical fatigue, joints inflammation, depression and sadness [12]. Treat weakness of sexual desire and nerves [11].
9 Melilotus officinalis (L.) Pall. Fabaceae STDF-13 Aerial parts Orman garden Joints pains [12].
10 Cassia fistula L. Fabaceae STDF-14 Fruits Orman garden Tonic, detoxicant [12]. expectorant for brain and chest problems [11]. Relieves inflammations of nerves and joints [13, 14].
11 Nerium oleander L. Apocynaceae STDF-15 Leaves Orman garden Highly toxic, relieves knee and back pain [12].
12 Nigella sativa L. Ranunculaceae STDF-16 Seeds Herbal shop Stimulant, improving memory, resolutive, considered as an adaptogen [12].
13 Peganum harmala L. Zygophyllaceae STDF-21 Seeds South Sinai Hallucinogenic, epilepsy, mental and nervous illnesses, relieves joints inflammation [12]. Cures headaches, strokes, numbness, epilepsy and forgetfulness [11].
14 Piper nigrum L. Piperaceae STDF-22 Seeds Herbal shop Stimulant, memory enhancer, sharpens the mind, and for strokes [11, 12]. Piper sp. (Piper cubeba) used by Pharaohs against different types of infections and headaches [21].
15 Rheum palmatum L. Polygonaceae STDF-23 Stem Herbal shop Anti-ageing, for dyspepsia, improves memory, and maintains healthy mind [12].
16 Rosmarinus officinalis L. Lamiaceae STDF-24 Aerial parts Orman garden Sharpens the mind, anti-depressant, anxiety, poor memory, and rheumatoid arthritis.
17 Ruta graveolens L. Rutaceae STDF-25 Leaves Local market Memory enhancer, relieves strokes, tremors, convulsion and epilepsy, joint pains [12].
18 Salvia triloba L. Lamiaceae STDF-26 Aerial parts Sinai (El-A’rish) Anti-inflammatory, nerve tonic, and memory enhancer.
19 Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merrill & Perry Myrtaceae STDF-27 Pud Herbal shop General tonic and memory enhancer [12]. Stimulant for brain, and anti-depressant [11].
20 Terminalia arjuna (Roxb.) Wight & Arn. Combretaceae STDF-28 Fruits El-Fayom Highly recommended for ageing diseases, improves memory and brain function, keeps the brain young and healthy [12]. Strengthens the senses and the brain, improves memory [11, 13].
21 Terminalia chebula Retz. Combretaceae STDF-29 Fruits El-Giza Traditionally used like T. arjuna.
22 Teucrium polium L. Lamiaceae STDF-30 Aerial parts South Sinai Improves mental performance, and concentration [12].
23 Zingiber officinale Roscoe Zingiberaceae STDF-31 Rhizome Local market (Mepaco) Memory enhancer, for joints inflammation [1113].