Effect of the C. nucifera extract on protein leakage and TNF-α production. Animals were pretreated by oral administration with different doses of the extract 24 h and 1 h prior to carrageenan (1%) injection into the subcutaneous air pouch (SAP). The results are presented as mean ± S.D. (n = 6–10) of protein (μg/ml) or TNF-α (pg/ml). Statistical significance was calculated by ANOVA followed by Bonferroni’s test. * indicates p < 0.05 when comparing C. nucifera-treated mice with the vehicle treated group; # indicates p < 0.05 when comparing vehicle-treated mice with the PBS-treated group.