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Figure 1 | BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine

Figure 1

From: Protective effect of topical Cordia verbenacea in a rat periodontitis model: immune-inflammatory, antibacterial and morphometric assays

Figure 1

Panel illustrating data for morphometric, immune-inflammatory, and antibacterial assays. A and B) Representative photographs illustrating the morphometric findings of C. verbenacea essential oil group (A) and non-treatment group (B). C) Means and standard error of the mean (SEM) of alveolar bone loss (mm) for ligated and unligated teeth in both groups. Significant difference when compared to ligated teeth (*). Significant difference when compared to NT group (†) (student t test, p < 0.05). D) Means and SEM of IL-1α and IL-10 concentration (pg/ml) assayed by ELISA. Significant difference when compared to NT group (‡) by student t test, p < 0.05. E) Frequency (%) of detection of periodontal pathogens in both groups. Significant difference when compared to NT group (**) by Fisher’s exact test, p < 0.05. F) Representative reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction products illustrating periodontal pathogens observed in one animal of the C. verbenacea essential oil group.

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