Effect of OY and fermented OYs on LPS-induced (A) TNF-α cytokine and (B) mRNA expression. RAW 264.7 cells pretreated with the indicated concentrations of OY or fermented OYs for 30 min before being incubated with LPS (200 ng/mL) for (A) 24 hours and (B) 6 hours, respectively. The level of TNF-α was measured by ELISA and the mRNA level was assessed by RT-PCR. (A) The data are mean ± SE values of duplicate determinations from three independent experiments. *p < 0.05 and **p < 0.005, were calculated from comparing with LPS-stimulated values. (B) The values in the LPS-stimulated cells without OY treatment was set to 1.0 and the differences by treatment were quantitated. The experiments were repeated at least three times, and similar results were obtained.