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Table 1 Inclusion and exclusion criteria

From: Dosing study of massage for chronic neck pain: protocol for the dose response evaluation and analysis of massage [DREAM] trial

Inclusion criteria Exclusion criteria
Between 20 and 64 years of age (Older people have higher risk of undiagnosed serious conditions causing neck pain) Previous massage for neck pain in the last year or any massage in the last 3 months
Both men and women, any race or ethnicity Neck pain lasting less than 3 months
At least one primary care visit for neck pain within the past 3 – 12 months Mild symptoms and no functional impairment (less than 4 on a 0 to 10 pain intensity scale and less than 5 on the Neck Disability Index)
Non-specific, uncomplicated neck pain, i.e., ICD-9 Identifiable disease or condition could be the cause of neck pain (metastatic cancer or unexplained weight loss, discitis, disk herniation, vertebral fracture, infectious cause of neck pain, severe or progressive scoliosis, spondylolishthesis, spinal stenosis, osteoporosis)
codes: 723.1 Cervicalgia  
 847.0 Cervical strain or sprain  
 839.00-839.08 Cervical subluxation Complicated neck problem (cervical radiculopathy, previous neck surgery, motor vehicle accident within past 3 months) Medico-legal issues (seeking or receiving compensation/litigation for neck or back pain)
 722.4 Cervical intervertebral disc degeneration  
 721.0 Cervical spondylosis without myelopathy Other conditions that might confound treatment effects or interpretation of the results (e.g., disabling heart or lung disease, diabetic neuropathy, severe fibromyalgia, severe untreated depression, receiving treatment for hepatitis or AIDS, rheumatoid arthritis, planning to seek CAM or medical treatments for neck pain)
Symptoms consistent with non-specific, uncomplicated neck pain  
Lives or works within 45 minutes travel time from study clinic Potential contraindications for massage (pregnancy, dizziness while lying supine, symptoms consistent with transient ischemic attack (TIA), previous stroke, hypersensitivity to touch or loss of sensation)
Give informed consent Conditions making informed consent or treatment difficult (dementia, unable to read or speak English, paralysis, physically unable to undergo massage sessions – e.g., cannot get on/off massage table, major psychoses, severe problems with hearing or vision, lack of transportation, scheduling problems, plan to move out of town)