Curcumin induces Smad7 and inhibits Smad2, P-Smad2, and Smad3 mRNA and protein expression in liver tissue of CCl
injected rats. (A-C) The levels of Smad2 (A), Smad3 (B) and Smad7 (C) mRNA in liver tissue were determined by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Smad2, Smad3 and Smad7 mRNA levels were normalized relative to GAPDH mRNA expression in each sample, and values are expressed as the mean ± SD fold increase over normal control group (n=6). *P < 0.01 for Cur/CCl4 vs. PBS/CCl4. (D-E) Western blots analysis of hepatic P-Smad2 and Smad7 expression, with GAPDH as the loading control. Blots obtained from several experiments were analysed using densitometry, and the densitometric values were pooled from four animals per group and are shown as means ± SD in the bar graph. *P < 0.05 for Cur/CCl4 vs. PBS/CCl4.