Effects of curcumin (Cur) on transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-β1) expression in the liver. (A) Immunohistochemical assessment of TGF-β1 in the liver (original magnification, ×200). (B) Western blotting analysis of hepatic TGF-β1 expression. Liver tissue was lysed and subjected to western blot analysis for TGF-β1, and the loading control GAPDH. Blots obtained from several experiments were analysed using densitometry, and the densitometric values were pooled from four animals per group and are shown as means ± SD in the bar graph. *P < 0.05 vs. rats treated with CCl4 alone. (C) Analysis of hepatic TGF-β1 mRNA expression by quantitative PCR. TGF-β1 mRNA levels were normalized relative to those of GAPDH mRNA in each sample, and values are expressed as the mean ± SD fold increase compared with the normal control group (n=6). *P < 0.01 for Cur/CCl4 vs. PBS/CCl4.