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Table 1 Demographic, lifestyle, reproductive and infertility-related characteristics of users and non-users of CAM treatments*

From: Prevalence and determinants of complementary and alternative medicine use among infertile patients in Lebanon: a cross sectional study

  Overall (n = 213) Users of CAM (n = 87) Non-users of CAM (n = 126) OR (95% CI)**
Age (years) ( mean ± SD) 34.7 ± 6.4 34.9 ± 6.7 34.6 ± 6.3 1.01 (0.97-1.05)
Sex (n,%)     
Male 63 (29.6%) 41 (47.1%) 22 (17.5%) 1
Female 150 (70.4%) 46 (52.9%) 104 (82.5%) 0.24 (0.13-0.44)
Religion (n,%)     
Muslim (Sunni, Shiite, Druze) 164 (78.5%) 74 (86.0%) 90 (73.2%) 1
Christian 45 (21.5%) 12 (14.0%) 33 (26.8%) 0.44 (0.21-0.92)
Years Married (n,%)     
1-3 years 97 (45.5%) 34 (39.1%) 63 (50.0%) 1
4-6 years 57 (26.8%) 20 (23.0%) 37 (29.4%) 1.00 (0.51-1.99)
≥ 7 years 59 (27.7%) 33 (37.9%) 26 (20.6%) 2.35 (1.21-4.56)
p for trend     <0.001
Household Income (n,%)     
<$1000/month 90 (42.3%) 51 (58.6%) 39 (31.0%) 1
$1000-2000/month 47 (22.1%) 17 (19.5%) 30 (23.8%) 0.43 (0.21-0.90)
>$2000/month 76 (35.7%) 19 (21.8%) 57 (45.2%) 0.26 (0.13-0.50)
p for trend     <0.001
Educational level (n,%)     
Illiterate to Baccalaureate 86 (40.4%) 48 (55.2%) 38 (30.2%) 1
Diploma/University 127 (59.6%) 39 (44.8%) 88 (69.8%) 0.35 (0.20-0.62)
Living with parents-in-law (n,%)     
No 196 (92.0%) 77 (88.5%) 119 (94.4%) 1
Yes 17 (8.0%) 10 (11.5%) 7 (5.6%) 2.21 (0.81-6.05)
Health Insurance (n,%)     
Uninsured 59 (27.7%) 29 (33.3%) 30 (23.8%) 1
Insured 154 (72.3%) 58 (66.7%) 96 (76.2%) 0.63 (0.34-1.15)
Smoking status (n,%)     
Non-smokera 177 (83.1%) 68 (78.2%) 109 (86.5%) 1
Smoker 36 (16.9%) 19 (21.8%) 17 (13.5%) 1.79 (0.87-3.68)
No. of years (mean ± SD) 16.0 ± 7.4 17.2 ± 7.3 14.6 ± 7.4 1.05 (0.96-1.16)
Self-perceived stress b     
≤5 103 (48.4%) 39 (44.8%) 64 (50.8%) 1
>5 110 (51.6%) 48 (55.2%) 62 (49.2%) 1.27 (0.73-2.20)
Age at diagnosis (mean ± SD)     
< 20 years 19 (8.9%) 14 (16.1%) 5 (4.0%) 1
20-30 years 91 (42.7%) 38 (43.7%) 53 (42.1%) 0.26 (0.09-0.77)
>30 years 103 (48.4%) 35 (40.2%) 68 (54.0%) 0.18 (0.06-0.55)
p for trend     <0.001
Kinship to spouse (n,%)     
Not related 183 (85.9%) 72 (82.8%) 111 (88.1%) 1
Related 30 (14.1%) 15 (17.2%) 15 (11.9%) 1.54 (0.71-3.35)
Family fertility problems (n,%)     
None 174 (81.7%) 72 (82.8%) 102 (81.0%) 1
Yes 39 (18.3%) 15 (17.2%) 24 (19.0%) 0.89 (0.43-1.81)
Duration of Infertility (mean ± SD) 4.3 ± 4.8 5.6 ± 5.7 3.4 ± 3.9 1.11 (1.04-1.18)
Barriers to adherence to treatment     
No barriers 85 (39.9%) 32 (36.8%) 53 (42.1%) 1
Barriers 128 (60.1%) 55 (63.2%) 73 (57.9%) 1.25 (0.71-2.19)
Current treatment (Males & Females) (n,%)     
No IUI or IVF treatmentc 43 (20.2%) 14 (16.1%) 29 (23.0%) 1
IUI or IVF procedure 170 (79.8%) 73 (83.9%) 97 (77.0%) 1.56 (0.77-3.16)
  1. *Values in this table represent n and % for the categorical variables and means ± SDs for the continuous variables.
  2. ** OR and their 95% CI were derived using a univariate logistic model with CAM use as the dependent variable.
  3. a Indicates both non-smokers and past-smokers.
  4. b Self-perceived stress was assessed using a scaling system ranging from 0–10 (0 = no stress at all, 10 = extreme stress).
  5. c Includes patients not receiving any treatment, patients receiving medications without IUI and/or surgery.