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Table 3 Characteristics of the animal experiments (n = 48)

From: Safety of higher dosages of Viscum album L. in animals and humans - systematic review of immune changes and safety parameters

  Number of studies
Animals  
Mice 42
Rats (1 × mixed: rats & mice) 4
Horses, Cats 2
Diagnoses  
Healthy animals 21
Cancer * (2 × mixed) 27
Treatment  
Whole extract 34
Isolated or recombinant ML 14
Application route  
Subcutan, intraperitoneal ** 35
Intratumoural, intravenous, intramuscular, intracutan, oral, intranasal, intravesical 13
Application frequency  
Applied just once 10
Applied more than once (5 × mixed) (up to several months) 38
Maximum dose per application  
≤ 20 mg mg/kg VAE 12
> 20-100 mg/kg VAE 16
> 100 mg/kg VAE (maximum dose: 1400 mg/kg) 6
> 50 ng/kg ML (maximum dose: 500 μg/kg oral, 50 μg/kg intranasal, 14 μg/kg sc) 9
< 50 ng/kg ML 5
Observation time < 1 week 6
Treatment of control group  
Placebo 33
No additional treatment or unclear 14
No control group 1
Immune outcomes investigated 38
Peripheral blood: CBC, DBC, leukocytes, lymphocytes, monocytes, granulocytes, T-cell subsets, activation markers, TNF-α 14
Immunoglobulins/humoral response to foreign antigens 9
Cellular response to foreign antigens, foreign skin graft rejection 2
Thymus (size, histological analysis, thymocytes, subsets, function 14
Spleen (size, weight, morphometric analysis, splenocytes, subsets, function) 8
Lymph nodes (weight, morphometric analysis) 2
Peritoneal macrophages and activity 3
Influence on leukopenia caused by radiation, chemotherapy, dexamethasone. 4
Others (tumour tissue, urinary bladder tissue, bronchoalveolar lavage) 4
Safety outcomes investigated 17
Monitored for toxicity, tolerability, vitality, clinical signs, body weight, food/water consumption, behavior, physical responses of the animals, local effects 9
Necropsy 2
Bladder histology after intravesical instillation of VAE 1
No details on recording 8
Time schedule of safety assessment  
Daily, 2/week 5
„Regular" 1
No details or no systematic plan 11
  1. * therapeutic application of VAE in 2 studies: equine sarcoid in horses [92], fibrosarcoma in cats [93];
  2. ** Injection of tumour cells that had been pre-incubated with VAE or ML in 2 studies [98, 99]