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Table 2 Means ± standard deviation of immunological parameters before, during and after exposition with Iscucin® Populi (IP), Viscum Mali e planta tota (VM) and placebo (Pl) in the ITT population, nd = not done.

From: Safety and effects of two mistletoe preparations on production of Interleukin-6 and other immune parameters - a placebo controlled clinical trial in healthy subjects

  Group Baseline Exposure Exposure Exposure Follow-up
    Week 4 Week 8 Week 12 Week 16
Leukocytes (1000/μl) IP 6.2 ± 2.0 5.9 ± 1.2 7.2 ± 2.0 * 6.7 ± 1.6 * 5.8 ± 1.5
  VM 5.7 ± 1.4 5.8 ± 1.2 6.0 ± 1.2 5.6 ± 1.4 5.7 ± 1.0
  Pl 6.4 ± 1.7 6.2 ± 1.6 6.5 ± 1.7 6.1 ± 1.7 6.5 ± 1.8
Eosinophils (1000/μl) IP 0.1 ± 0.0 0.2 ± 0.1** 1.1. ± 0.7*** 0.8 ± 0.5*** 0.2 ± 0.1
  VM 0.1 ± 0.0 0.1 ± 0.0 0.2 ± 0.0* 0.2 ± 0.0** 0.2 ± 0.1
  Pl 0.2 ± 0.1 0.2 ± 0.1 0.2 ± 0.1 0.2 ± 0.1 0.2 ± 0.1
Neutrophils (1000/μl) IP 3.8 ± 1.7 3.3 ± 0.9 3.7 ± 1.4 3.5 ± 1.3 3.4 ± 1.3 *
  VM 3.3 ± 1.1 3.3 ± 0.9 3.5 ± 1.2 3.2 ± 1.1 3.3 ± 0.7
  Pl 3.9 ± 1.5 3.8 ± 1.3 4.0 ± 1.4 3.8 ± 1.6 4.1 ± 1.5
Lymphocytes (1000/μl) IP 1.9 ± 0.5 2.0 ± 0.4* 2.1 ± 0.5* 2.0 ± 0.5* 1.9 ± 0.5
  VM 1.9 ± 0.6 2.0 ± 0.5 1.9 ± 0.5 1.9 ± 0.5 1.9 ± 0.6
  Pl 1.9 ± 0.3 1.9 ± 0.4 1.9 ± 0.4 1.8 ± 0.3 1.8 ± 0.3
Monocytes (1000/μl) IP 0.4 ± 0.1 0.3 ± 0.0 0.4 ± 0.1 0.4 ± 0.1 0.3 ± 0.0**
  VM 0.3 ± 0.0 0.3 ± 0.0 0.4 ± 0.1 0.3 ± 0.1 0.3 ± 0.1
  Pl 0.3 ± 0.1 0.3 ± 0.0 0.3 ± 0.1 0.3 ± 0.1 0.4 ± 0.1
Natural killer cells (1000/μl) IP 0.3 ± 0.1 0.3 ± 0.1 0.3 ± 0.1 0.3 ± 0.1 0.2 ± 0.1
  VM 0.2 ± 0.1 0.2 ± 0.1 0.2 ± 0.0 0.2 ± 0.1 0.2 ± 0.1
  Pl 0.3 ± 0.0 0.3 ± 0.0 0.3 ± 0.1 0.2 ± 0.0 0.2 ± 0.0
CD4 cells (1000/μl) IP 0.8 ± 0.3 0.9 ± 0.3* 0.9 ± 0.3* 0.9 ± 0.3* 0.9 ± 0.3*
  VM 0.8 ± 0.2 0.9 ± 0.2 0.8 ± 0.2 0.9 ± 0.2 0.8 ± 0.3
  Pl 0.9 ± 0.2 0.8 ± 0.1 0.8 ± 0.2 0.8 ± 0.1 0.8 ± 0.2
CD8 cells (1000/μl) IP 0.4 ± 0.1 0.5 ± 0.1 0.5 ± 0.1 0.5 ± 0.1* 0.5 ± 0.1
  VM 0.5 ± 0.2 0.6 ± 0.2 0.5 ± 0.2 0.5 ± 0.1 0.5 ± 0.1
  Pl 0.5 ± 0.1 0.5 ± 0.1 0.5 ± 0.1 0.5 ± 0.1 0.5 ± 0.1
Ratio T4/T8 IP 2.0 ± 0.7 2.0 ± 0.7* 2.0 ± 0.7 2.0 ± 0.7 2.0 ± 0.7
  VM 1.7 ± 0.7 1.8 ± 0.7 1.8 ± 0.7 1.8 ± 0.7 1.8 ± 0.6
  Pl 1.8 ± 0.5 1.8 ± 0.5 1.8 ± 0.5 1.9 ± 0.6 1.8 ± 0.5
B-cells (1000/μl) IP 0.2 ± 0.1 0.2 ± 0.1 0.2 ± 0.1 0.3 ± 0.1 0.2 ± 0.1
  VM 0.2 ± 0.0 0.2 ± 0.0 0.2 ± 0.1 0.2 ± 0.0 0.2 ± 0.0
  Pl 0.2 ± 0.0 0.2 ± 0.0 0.2 ± 0.0 0.2 ± 0.0 0.2 ± 0.1
Immunoglobulin A (g/l) IP 1.9 ± 0.7 1.8 ± 0.7 1.8 ± 0.7 1.8 ± 0.7 1.8 ± 0.7
  VM 2.2 ± 0.9 2.2 ± 0.8 2.2 ± 0.9 2.2 ± 0.9 2.2 ± 0.8
  Pl 1.9 ± 0.7 1.9 ± 0.7 1.9 ± 0.7 1.9 ± 0.7 1.8 ± 0.7
Immunoglobulin G (g/l) IP 11.3 ± 2.4 11.1 ± 2.3 11.0 ± 2.1 11.1 ± 2.2 11.1 ± 2.4
  VM 11.1 ± 1.8 11.2 ± 1.7 11.1 ± 1.9 11.1 ± 1.7 11.0 ± 1.7
  Pl 11.0 ± 2.4 11.0 ± 2.3 11.0 ± 2.4 11.0 ± 2.3 11.0 ± 2.4
Immunoglobulin M (g/l) IP 1.3 ± 0.5 1.3 ± 0.5 1.3 ± 0.5 1.3 ± 0.5* 1.3 ± 0.6*
  VM 1.3 ± 0.6 1.3 ± 0.7** 1.3 ± 0.7 1.3 ± 0.6 1.3 ± 0.6
  Pl 1.2 ± 0.6 1.2 ± 0.6 1.2 ± 0.6 1.1 ± 0.6 1.2 ± 0.6
Interleukin-6 (pg/ml) IP 0.8 ± 0.8 0.6 ± 0.3 0.9 ± 1.3 1.3 ± 1.7 0.7 ± 0.5
  VM 0.6 ± 0.4 0.5 ± 0.2 1.0 ± 1.2 0.6 ± 0.4 0.6 ± 0.4
  Pl 1.0 ± 0.7 0.8 ± 0.7 0.9 ± 0.8 1.0 ± 0.8 1.7 ± 3.0
C-reactive protein (mg/l) IP 2.7 ± 4.4 1.8 ± 1.1 2.1 ± 1.4 3.6 ± 5.5 1.6 ± 1.2*
  VM 2.5 ± 3.0 1.8 ± 1.1 3.4 ± 3.5 1.6 ± 1.2** 1.8 ± 1.2*
  PL 4.6 ± 9.2 3.0 ± 3.4 3.0 ± 2.6 4.2 ± 3.4 4.3 ± 5.0
Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (ng/l) IP 10 ± 3 10 ± 3 11 ± 3 12 ± 3 * 11 ± 3
  VM 10 ± 3 10 ± 3 11 ± 4 11 ± 4 11 ± 3
  Pl 10 ± 3 10 ± 2 11 ± 3 10 ± 2 11 ± 2
Mistletoe lectin antibodies (optical density) IP nd nd nd 971 ± 143*** nd
  VM nd nd nd 51 ± 31 nd
  Pl nd nd nd 33 ± 30 nd
Viscotoxin antibodies (optical density) IP nd nd nd 544 ± 289*** nd
  VM nd nd nd 76 ± 98 nd
  Pl nd nd nd 13 ± 9 nd
  1. * p < 0.05 compared to placebo, ** p < 0.01 compared to placebo, *** p < 0.001 compared to placebo. Significant deviations are bold typed.