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Table 1 In vitro activity of geopropolis extracts against Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacilus acidophilus and Candida albicans

From: Antimicrobial activity against oral pathogens and immunomodulatory effects and toxicity of geopropolis produced by the stingless bee Melipona fasciculata Smith

Extracts a Inhibition zone in mm ( X ¯ ± SD)b
  S. mutans C. albicans L. acidophilus
HAE-1 0d 0d 0d
HAE-2 13 ± 1cd 13 ± 3b 0d
HAE-3 10 ± 2cd 9 ± 1cd 0d
HAE-2-CF 13 ± 2cd 0d 0d
HAE-2-HF 0d 0d 0d
Chlorhexidine (0.12%) 23 ± 1 15 ± 2 20 ± 3
Ethanol (70%) 0 0 0
  1. a Extracts of geopropolis from different municipalities, as shown in Table 1.
  2. b Average of agar diffusion tests performed in duplicate in three independent experiments.
  3. c Significantly different from negative control (70% ethanol).
  4. d Significantly different from positive control (0.12% chlorhexidine) (p < 0.05; Mann-Whitney test).