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Table 7 Synopsis of effects of RHP and GLGPG on cellular processes

From: Rose hip and its constituent galactolipids confer cartilage protection by modulating cytokine, and chemokine expression

Type of mediators Effect of RHP and GLGPG
  In murine macrophages In human PBL In chondrocytes Possible consequences of reduced expression or production
Chemokines
(chemokine family)
    
   MIP-1α (CC) Not significant Reduced by GLGPG -a Recruitment of monocytes, T cells, B cells and eosinophils reduced by GLGPG
   MIP-1β (CC) -a Reduced by GLGPG -a Recruitment of monocytes and neutrophils reduced by GLGPG
   MIP-3α (CC) -a Reduced Reduced Recruitment of T lymphocytes reduced
   CCL5/RANTES (CC) Not significant Reduced Reduced Recruitment of leukocytes diminished
   MIP-2 (CXC) -a Not significant Reduced by RHP Recruitment of neutrophils diminished by RHP
   IL-8 (CXC) -a Reduced Reduced by RHP Mainly reduced recruitment of neutrophils
   CXCL10/IP-10 (CXC) Reduced Reduced -a Recruitment of activated T cells diminished
Interleukins/cytokines     
   IL-10 Increased Increased -a Enhancement of anti-inflammatory processes
   IL-1α Reduced Reduced Reduced Attenuation of inflammatory processes
   IL-1β Reduced Not significant Reduced Attenuation of inflammatory processes
   IL-6 Unchanged Unchanged Reduced by RHP Modulation of inflammatory processes in OA and RA
   TNF-α Reduced Reduced -a Effects on initiation and progression of RA
Growth & differentiation factors     
   G-CSF Unchanged Increased by RHP Not significant Modulation of immune response
   GM-CSF Unchanged Increased by RHP Not significant Modulation of immune response
   VEGF -a Increased by RHP Not significant Promotes angiogenesis
   IFN-γ Unchanged Reduced Not significant Altered immune response
  1. a- = not measured