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Table 5 Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) in μg/ml of antibiotics in the absence and presence of the sub-inhibitory concentrations of D. glomerata extracts against MDR bacteria.

From: Antibacterial activities of selected Cameroonian spices and their synergistic effects with antibiotics against multidrug-resistant phenotypes

Bacterial strains Antibiotics and MIC in absence and presence D. glomerata extracts at MIC/2 and MIC/5
  Chloramphenicol Cloxacillin Ampicillin Erythromycin Kanamycin
  Alone MIC/2 MIC/5 Alone MIC/2 MIC/5 Alone MIC/2 MIC/5 Alone MIC/2 MIC/5 Alone MIC/2 MIC/5
PA124 32 32 (1) I 16 (2) s - - - 64 - - 64 32 (2) s 64 (1) I 64 16 (4) s 64 (1)
CM64 256 256 (1) I - - - - - - 256 - 64 128 1 1 (1) I 1(1) I
EA3 - 32 (> 16) s 32 (> 16) s - 256 256 - - - 64 32 (2) s 64 (1) I 32 16 (2) s 16 (2) s
EA27 256 32 (8) s 64 (4) s 256 64 (4) s 64 (4) s 64 64 (1) I 64 (1) I 32 32 (1) I 32 (1) I 16 16 (1) I 16 (1) I
EA289 - - - - - - - 256 64 256 64 (4) s 128 (2) s 4 < 2 (> 2) s 4 (1) I
KP55 64 8 (8) s 16 (4) s - - - - - - 256 128 (2) s 128 (2) s 32 32 (1) I 32 (1) I
AG100ATET 64 8 (8) s 16 (4) s - - - - 16 32 32 32 (1) I 16 (2) s 32 2 (16) s 8 (4) s
AG100 8 < 2 (> 4) s < 2 (> 4) s 256 128 (2) s 64 (4) s 64 4 (16) s 4 (16) s 32 < 2 (> 16) s 4 (8) s < 2 < 2 < 2
Bacterial strains Tetracycline Cefepime Streptomycin Ciprofloxacin Norfloxacin
  Alone MIC/2 MIC/5 Alone MIC/2 MIC/5 Alone MIC/2 MIC/5 Alone MIC/2 MIC/5 Alone MIC/2 MIC/5
PA124 4 < 0, 5 (> 8) s 2 (2) s - - - 16 16 (1) I 16 (1) I 16 < 0, 5 (> 8) s 16 (1) I 128 - -
CM64 32 4 (8) s 8 (4) s 256 64 (4) s 128 (2) s 8 < 2 (> 4) s 4 (2) s 1 1 (1) I 1 (1) I 2 1 (2) s 1 (2) s
EA3 2 1 (2) s 2 (2) s - - - 16 8 (2) s 8 (2) s 64 4 (16) s 64 (1) I 64 32 (2) s 64 (1) I
EA27 16 4 (4) s 8 (2) s 256 128 (2) s 128 (2) s 8 4 (2) s 4 (2) s 2 2 (1) I 2 (1) I 16 2 (8) s 4 (4) s
EA289 8 1 (8) s 2 (4) s - 256 (> 2) s - 64 8 (8) s 32 (2) s 32 16 (2) s 16 (2) s 64 16 (4) s 32 (2) s
KP55 4 2 (2) s 2 (2) s - 128 (> 4) s - 8 8 (1) I 8 (1) I 128 4 (32) s 32 (4) s 128 32 (4) s 32 (4) s
AG100ATET 4 1 (4) s 2 (2) s - 32(> 16) s - 16 2 (8) s 16 (1) I 64 32 (2) s 16 (4) s 64 8 (8) s 16 (4) s
AG100 < 2 < 2 (> 4) s < 2 (> 4) s 256 < 2 (> 128) s < 2 (> 128) s 256 256 (1) I 256 (1) I < 2 < 2 < 2 32 4 (8) s 32 (1) I
  1. MIC/2: concentration of plant extract added equal to 256 μg/ml for PA124, CM64, EA3, EA27, KP55, AG100; and to 512 μg/ml for EA289 and AG100ATET.
  2. MIC/5: concentration of plant extract added equal to 102.4 μg/ml for PA124, CM64, EA3, EA27, KP55, AG100; and to 204.8 μg/ml for EA289 and AG100ATET
  3. (): Values in bracket are folds increase of activity. S: synergy, I: indifference; (-): > 512 μg/ml